But would optegnelse also cover record as in "the student's file" (e.g. in the headmaster's office)? To me the Danish sentence sounds as if the student made a record of something, while the English sentence would more likely suggest that the file is about the student.
But would optegnelse also cover record as in "the student's file" (e.g. in the headmaster's office)? Yes.
Strictly speaking the danish sentence could be interpreted as both a record made by the pupil and a record about the pupil, but most danes would interpret that sentence as a record about the pupil. With those sentences you have to guess by context.
"Mandens bil"= the man's car.
"Mandens straffeattest"= the man's criminal record.
"Attest" is 'a written confirmation'.