Vill ha, tycker om and lagar mat
Vill ha, tycker om and lagar mat
We've noticed that these verbs are often difficult for new learners. Here are some hints:
vill ha is a phrasal verb. It is used when you want a thing. There's no other way to say want to have in Swedish, so vill ha covers both want and want to have, but usually the best translation is just want. When you want an object, you can't leave out ha. However, when you want to do something, ha is not used.
Jag vill ha ett äpple. (I want an apple)
Jag vill sjunga. (I want to sing.)
Jag vill inte ha din bok. (I don't want your book)
Jag vill inte sjunga. (I don't want to sing)
Vill du ha ett äpple? (Do you want an apple?)
Vill du inte ha ett äpple? (Don't you want an apple?)
Also possible, but rare word order: Vill inte du ha ett äpple? (Don't you want an apple?)
tycker om is a particle verb meaning like. The particle om must always be stressed. The verb tycker without the particle means think like in I think this is good – not as in I think about you, that would be Jag tänker på dig.
Jag tycker om äpplen. (I like apples)
Jag tycker om dig. (I like you)
Jag tycker att du är trevlig (I think that you are nice)
Jag tänker på dig (I am thinking about you)
Jag tycker inte om din bok (I don't like your book)
Jag tycker inte att du är trevlig (I don't think that you are nice)
Jag tänker inte på dig (I am not thinking about you)
Tycker du om äpplen? (Do you like apples?)
Tycker du inte om äpplen? (Don't you like apples?)
Also possible, but rare word order: Tycker inte du om äpplen? (Don't you like apples?)
More about the difference between tycka, tänka and tro here.
lagar mat means cook. This is a verb that needs to have an object in Swedish. In English, you can say simply "I cook." In Swedish, you have to cook something, and if you don't want to say you're cooking anything specific, you have to say Jag lagar mat. The word lagar can mean mend or fix when used with other objects. To say lagar without an object is a bit like saying make without an object in English. If I'd say "I'm making", you'd probably ask me "Making what?"
False friend alert: the Swedish word kokar means boil. It also requires an object, unless for instance you're saying that you yourself is boiling with rage, or that the water is boiling.
Jag lagar mat. (I am cooking)
Jag lagar middag (I am cooking dinner)
Jag kokar ett ägg (I am boiling an egg)
Jag lagar inte mat (I am not cooking)
Jag lagar inte middag (I am not cooking dinner)
Lagar du mat? (Are you cooking?)
Lagar du inte mat? (Aren't you cooking?)
also possible, but rare word order: Lagar inte du mat? (Aren't you cooking?)
If I remember this correctly, "lagar" in Swedish and "lager" in Norwegian are (partly) false friends. In both countries we use it for "cook" ("laga mat" or "lage mat"). Apart from that, "laga" means fix or repair in Swedish while it is still means make or create in Norwegian.
Swe: han lagar en snögubbe = he repairs a snowman
Nor: han lager en snømann = he builds a snowman
This pretty much sums up all the problems i've had in Swedish.Would have been a good idea to check this out earlier,even though i made sense of it somehow,it's still nice to have it explained.
Though,the most frustrating sentence for me was ˝Jag litar i ällmanhet på personalen˝.Ohh how i've wrestled with this one sentence.But after i finally realised the right way to write it,i had so much more will to learn Swedish.
But to be honest i'll still be unsure at times when to use i/på/om/med/vid.I did notice there was one sentence ˝Kom in˝ that made me wonder,why is it the first time i've seen ˝in˝ used,and is it much like English in? Could i say Österrike ligger in Europa instead of Österrike ligger i Europa ?
If I may recommend my text about word order: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/8970470
If you haven't found it already, it could be helpful.
About the prepositions, they're always hard of course. in is used for direction though, i is used with location. This is why we say Kom in! So you can't use in for location in countries or similar.
My question is, is "villja ha" polite to say in a store? In English, we would say 'I would like an apple, please,' translated literally as 'Jag skulle villja har ett apple, tack.' and saying 'I want an apple.' is just, well, not a very English thing to say. (Though I'm not an English native speaker.) So this is more about the connotation and cultural difference.
It can be used to stress you as in Aren't you cooking? (probably as a contrast to everyone else doing that, or something). It's funny, I was just re-reading this post today since I linked here and I thought I should probably write something more about these constructions. It makes sense you haven't seen them because they're much rarer and I can't really recommend using them, they only fit in special contexts and you don't ever need to use that word order.
PS, I've edited the text a little to make it clearer now. Maybe I should also add that sentences can be made to mean many different things depending on how they're stressed when speaking, and that this word order doesn't necessarily always mean what I just wrote, but it would typically mean that when said with the most typical intonation.
Duo lingo should partner with a publishing house to have a complete grammar guide with all basic grammar topics in order, for every language, accessible, at a cost even, to those who have questions or doubts about certain topics. It doesn't need to be a requirement. But often I find myself going to other websites such as this one http://la-conjugaison.nouvelobs.com/regles/ or looking in grammar books to find clear explanations of certain rules.
And more active exercises! (writing and speaking) It's all too passive (listening and reading).