There are evergreen forests in Sweden, but also deciduous and mixed forests as well. So we do know what beautiful, fiery colours an autumn forrest can shrowd itself in; we have some aspen and pine colour effects going on in our woods at this very moment. :)
You could say that the leaves turn"gyllene" in Swedish, everyone would understand you. However, at least nowadays, I perceive "gyllene" as a quite poetic word, maybe even a bit stilted. At least when used litteraly, not necessarily in sayings.
If you were to shop for trinkets at H&M's webshop, the option for the gould coloured knickknacks would not be "gyllene", but "guld" or maybe "guldfärgad" (they wouldn't try to actually fool you, but they probably wouldn't want to rub the customer's face in the fact that it is only a colour that will wear off sooner, rather than later, either). Also, if I was choosing between the same model of shoes, a bag or garment that were available in several colours, and got the question which one I want, I would say "the on in gold" = "den i guld", or "the gold coloured one" = "den guldfärgade".
I would use "gyllene" for: gyllene snittet, Gyllene salen, gyllene regeln, den gyllene medelvägen, and of course one of Swedens biggest pop groups in the last fifty years: Gyllene Tider! :D
Anyway, returning to the warm colours of autumn forrests, I think most Swedes would call the leaves yellow, orange, and red, maybe also brown; i.e. "gula", 'orange(a)"*, and "röda", maybe also "bruna".
- "Orange" is a tricky loan word. It is correct to say "orange" in the plural and definite form as well, but it is also OK to add an 'a', as you actually don't pronounce the "e" at the end of "orange". But I think it's considered a as an awkward solution, it doesn't really conform to how the Swedesh language ordinarily works. There is also a suggestion that you may solv the problem with the awkward "orangea" with synonyms as "rödgula" and "apelsinfärgade", but i don't perceive this as common; maybe it's even a bit oldtimey.
Oh yes, you could actually also use the adjective "guldig" for the colour of gold. To my surprise, it actually entered the 2015 edition of SAOL, the glossary of the Swedish Academy. I percieve it as very colloquial, and almost kind of uneducated/childish. However, as I suspect "gyllene" will increasingly be seen as too grandiose for everyday use, it wouldn't surprise me if "guldig" just might be getting some traction down the line.
Yes, I mean it's special because it ends in -d, so it becomes rött instead of rödt (actually it has been spelled like that historically). Blå and grå also get two t:s, and they have alternative forms:
ett grått hus, det grå/gråa huset, grå/gråa hus, de grå/gråa husen
same with blå:
ett blått hus, det blå/blåa huset, blå/blåa hus, de blå/blåa husen
en blå bil, den blå/blåa bilen, blå/blåa bilar, de blå/blåa bilarna
same with grå
en grå bil, den grå/gråa bilen, grå/gråa bilar, de grå/gråa bilarna
Whether you pick blå or blåa is purely a matter of taste as far as I can tell. Could be something regional, but both are fine.
The reason for this is that blå used to be pronounced as a long a. The circle on top of å is actually historically another small a, so in Old Swedish the word blå was pronounced blaa.
Then when you added the -a you got an -a following an already long a, so they blended together. And that’s why you can say blå/grå bilar today. Then the -a has been added again later and blåa/gråa is just as fine as Arnauti said.
It's a before a consonant sound, and an before a vowel sound. apple starts with a vowel sound of course, so it's an apple, but since yellow has the sound we'd describe as j in Swedish at the beginning (й in Russian for instance) which is a consonant, it changes into a there.
i think that would be: "äpplet och bilen är gula". gula ist the plural form of gul / gult:
in the plural, it doesn't matter whether you are talking about ett words or en words. but as i am only a swedish learner like you, i might be wrong. :-)
so the singular is yellow, but in the plural it becomes golden?
That's what it seems like - "ett gult äpple" is translated above as "yellow apple" but when I wrote "golden apple" it wasn't accepted.
The very next translation was "write in Swedish 'golden apples' - and the choice was "gyllene äpplen"
Blub, almost all Swedish adjectives (not just "gul" or the other color words) must "agree" with the nouns that they modify as to gender and number. This is a fundamental point of Swedish grammar, so you may want to read up on it as you continue your study of Swedish.
There are some adjectives that are "indeclinable", but they are the exception rather than the rule (e.g., bra, gyllene ).