So, would the difference be something like "call over" and "call up"?
The explanation above (that shall would be extremely unusual) doesn't really seem fair to those of us who were taught the difference between will and shall in English. Is it very difficult to add an alternate answer? Many of my British friends make the distinction regularly
Here is an online reference https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/usage/shall-or-will
I always use "I shall" for the future. I shall = ich werde Some English speakers use "I will" see https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/usage/shall-or-will
From other comments, I get it that using „shall“ for future tense is a thing across the pond.
It’s an exception, and an exception for only one pronoun, „I“. But to me, even the narrowness of the exception makes this exception make even less sense.
Growing up in America, I was always taught that „will“ is the future tense, no exceptions, and that „shall“ shall be used strictly for situations where one „has to“ do something.
„Shall“ is also a command verb. Nothing future about it, unless one considers that, having just received the command, the command is therefore not yet fulfilled.
As for me, the habit is broken. There will be no „I shall“ if what I really mean is „I will“.
Just to clear up a problem anyone is having. Rufen means to call out for someone, Anrufen means to call. Now remember that Anrufen is a seperable verb. Example Ich rufe ihr an.| I call her (on the phone). But also, as a side note, when dealing with modal verbs such as "werden", the seperable prefix is simply dropped. So "Ich werde ihm rufen" Can mean "I'll call (out) for him" or "I'll call him (on the phone)."
http://dict.leo.org/#/search=rufen&searchLoc=0&resultOrder=basic&multiwordShowSingle=on rufen to shout schrein http://dict.leo.org/#/search=schreien&searchLoc=0&resultOrder=basic&multiwordShowSingle=on to scream. That's what I was taught, could be wrong
I guess there are many different ways of producing noises in both, German and English, so you can't get into any subtleties without the context.
"Call" can translate into "rufen" (call someone who can hear you), "anrufen" (call on the phone), "nennen" (call someone names), "aufrufen" (e.g. call the next person in a waiting line).
"Yell" is best translated with "schreien", but "scream" and "shout" also translate into "schreien". All these English words have at least one more German translation (yell - brüllen, scream - kreischen, shout - rufen).
"Rufen" is normally targeted at a person (or a pet animal) and implies that the "Rufer" expects a reaction. It can also be more abstract, e.g. when calling the authorities (Ich rufe die Polizei/die Feuerwehr). The use of "rufen" instead of "anrufen" stresses the implied reaction rather than the means of calling. Sometimes, "rufen" is also used when a reaction is possible but not necessarily expected (Ich rufe seinen Namen - even knowing he can't hear me. Or "Ich rufe in den Wald hinein")
"Anrufen" is normally used for "call by phone".
So back to your original question, both "rufen" and "anrufen" translate best into "call".
German native speaker, btw.
but could you also say, Ich rufe den Polizei an, so es erfolgen soll. Take this sentence with a pich of salt, it's probably in correct syntax, but the idea I'm trying to suggest is this; could you use anrufen and then state the expected actions resulting from your act of calling?
could you alos look at this comment cyrilo to, I'm somewhat confused https://www.duolingo.com/comment/6075522$comment_id=6076361