how do I know whether it's "Great power doesn't have the king" or "The king doesn't have great power"?
The sentence can also have the meaning "Great power doesn't have the king", it is still grammatically correct. Its interpretation is nonsense however, that is how to differentiate.
wouldn't instead that be, "Grote macht heeft geen koning?"
Why is big power not accepted?
Because that's not the correct use of English
So no great responsibility either then?
Why not "Great power the king does not have"?