Great example of da before infinitive. da transforms the infinitive to passive or a goal to write becomes to be written. Or an act that has to be done repairing becomes repaired. when the infinitive follows
andare , aiutare, cominciare, continuare, fermarsi (stop oneself), imparare, insegnare, invitare, mandare, passare (to stop by), riuscire (succeed), venire, and abbligare " A" must precede infinitive and follows these verbs.
when : avere (to have a need, fear, intend, or feel = voglio or want) cercare (to try) , chiedere, credere, decidere, dimenticare, dire (say), finire, pensare (to play not think), permettere (permit) , promettere (promise), smettere (to stop - see fermarsi), sperare (to hope to do something), sognare (dream), soffrire, consigliare "DI" must precede infinitive and follows these verbs.
In Italian you have the double negation.. so there is always a combination of non ... and another negation:
non.. niente, non ... nulla, non ... nessuno etc.
only in the case the negation is used at the beginning of a sentence there is no double negation:
Niente ho da perdere. = non ho da perdere niente. (the second sentence is much more used)
I must admit that i do worry about a language, or clarity of expression of folk using it, where double negatives are used. A po faced comment i know and i do realise that different languages are different and that italians will just read this as a straight simple negative with no thought processing needed.
You could argue that we have less clarity of expression in English because some people use a double negative to express a simple negative (because this is correct in their native dialect), whereas others use a double negative as a negation of the negative. Italian doesn't have this problem (or so I assume, perhaps it has dialects that use a single word of negation like English does, with school teachers explaining to the dialect speakers that this is not standard Italian and they must add in an extra word of negation). I would say English was the unclear language here, as you have to work out whether you're speaking to a dialect speaker to know the meaning of a double negative in English (tip for non-native speakers: any double negative that includes the word "ain't" is intended as a simple negative).
Interesting reply laura. Can you give an example of an english "dialect" use of a double negative being used as a simple negative? And of a double negative with "aint" used as a simple negative. Am generally against double negatives in english. Sometimes a sign of sloppy expression/thinking and at others pomposity - used by folk trying to pretend they are cleverer than they are.
"I ain't got none." "I ain't seen no bus." "I ain't done nuffin/nothing." It's not sloppy, it's simply non-standard English, with different rules from the ones you are familiar with and have learnt to value and use as a method of making judgements about the people who use it (e.g. that they are sloppy or uneducated or unintelligent - in fact the fact that someone is talking to you in dialect is no clear indicator in either direction of any of these things, although it is likely to be an indicator that they come from a family that uses dialect or have chosen to adopt it for social reasons). Most of us were taught to make value judgements about non-standard language use when at school - similarly to when they banned use of the Welsh language at schools even in playgrounds and children would be punished for using it because the teachers wanted the children to use (standard) English. I'm not saying that being able to speak and write fluently in the standard variant of your language isn't a very useful skill for a variety of reasons. What I'm saying is that the value judgements most people make about use of non-standard variants of the language have a far from perfect correlation with non-standard language usage and could lead to major errors of judgement, so it would probably be more helpful to try and look through these.