Translation:The twentieth century

December 19, 2014

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The literal translation here is "the nineteen hundreds," right? The nineteen hundreds is, of course, the twentieth century. Earlier in this course we learned the word "århundrade" for century. Do the Swedes ever use "det tjugonde århundradet"? (In English we often express it both ways... as the 1900s and the twentieth century.)


Very rarely (nowadays, it was used more in the past). We may use it for instance if we need to speak about the first century.


Tack så mycket.


Can the first century also be "etthundratalet"?


Etthundratalet = years 100 through 199.


Nah, that would refer to the second century.


Okay, I would love to have some context here.. From another sentence I learned that -tals has the same function as the "-s" in "hundreds/thousands". So what does "tal" mean? I thought it meant "number"? So why does Swedish use the possessive -s to turn it into something that means "many ...", instead of just using plural? Or isn't this possessive?

And, more importantly: What does "nittonhundratalet" exactly mean? Is it like "the 1900-numbered (ones)"? But it is singular because of -et, isn't it? I'm confused :D

Sorry for this looong comment :D


In your question you wrote '-tals' with an 's'. But that is not in the original Swedish here, which is just '-tal'. Does that help clarify the matter? You say you saw some other example that uses '-tals', but what was it exactly?


The Swedish 'tal' is cognate to German 'zahl' or English 'tally' and is one of several words (along with nummer, antal, etc.) that might be translated into English as 'number'. According to 'Swedish, A Comprehensive Grammar' by Holmes & Hinchliffe, '-tal' has several uses, such as:

  1. the suffix -tal added to a cardinal number equals approximation or order of magnitude; for example, 'ett femtiotal träd' = 'around 50 trees'.

  2. -tals can also be used to indicate an indefinite rather than an exact number: 'tusentals personer' = 'thousands of people'.

  3. -talet is used to indicate decade or century: 'han dog på femtio talet'= 'he died in the fifties'; '2000-talet' = 'tjugohundratalet' = the 21st century

So, to answer your most recent question, think of 'tusen' as an exact number but of 'tustental' as a category or approximation.

And to answer your original question, think of 'nittonhundratalet' as 'the 1900 year category' or maybe 'the number space 1900 to 1999' or maybe just 'the 1900s'.


So this now helps me to think of the suffix as denoting a range of numbers rather than one specific number.


You probably saw a sentence like 'Det kostar tusentals kronor'. It is true that that can be translated as 'It costs thousands of kronor'. However, the -s there on -tals is not really a plural -s. (The indefinite plural of 'tal' is 'tal'!) Rather, the -s there is a genitive -s (like the English 's): literally, 'It costs thousand's kronor.' I think of it as meaning something like 'The number of kronor is in the category of a thousand'. (If I am mistaken about this, I hope someone will correct me!)


So the -s is indeed possessive/genitive, as I assumed in my first comment.

But what is the function of -tal? Why not say Det kostar tusens kronor? What's the difference between tusen and tusental?


I think (and I'm sure a native will quickly correct me if I'm wrong):

Det kostar tusens kronor = it costs a thousand kronor (exactly 1000; the price is 1000kr) Det kostar tusentals kronor = it costs thousands of kronor (the price might be 1000kr, it might be 8000kr, etc)


I think "tusens" simply doesn't make sense. It might be worth thinking of "-tal" as a nominalizer.


I think the sentence I mentioned contained tusentals or something like that. That's why in my comment I claimed -tals to mean many (as in many thousands instead of one thousand). So my confusion was due to -tals meaning more than one in one case, and -tal meaning... yeah, what indeed? in the case of nittonhundratal(et)?

I hope my question/confusion is clearer now. Though by now, I have kind of incorporated these uses of tal into my sense of the Swedish language. So it's okay if nobody can explain this to me. :)


Wouldn't this be the nineteenth century? Nitton is nineteen, not twenty. Is this a mistake?

Edit: Saw on another sentence that this is right, and just rather means the nineteen-hundreds. What would one call the first century in Swedish, then?


You’d probably switch to the ”English” system and say ”första århundradet” (first century). Saying 000-talet in speech doesn’t really work.


Wait, I'm not sure if i understand well, for Swedish the century between 1900 and 1999 is the nineteen century?


No, that is the 20th century. It can however be called the 19 hundreds


It's the same everywhere. The first century is 0-100, second century 100-200 etc. We are now in the 21st century


Yeah, or well it’s equivalent of saying ’the 1900s’.


The period between 1900 and 1999 is called (in English) either the twentieth century or the 1900s. Swedish uses the latter approach.


Thank you. In my language we don't talk about the 1900's, only the XX century. We only take the X's aprroach with the decades (the 20's, the 30's...etc).


CrazyChao, yes, "nitton" means 19, not 20. But the century that in English is called the 20th century can also be called the 1900s. The latter is the Swedish approach.


There is no way for Duolingo to accept a correct pronunciation. I don't think it's able to recognise speech for this word.


Is there any way this could accept 1900s? The other questions regarding Nittonhundratalet accept it (they even suggest it)


Actually, "The 1900s" is already accepted, but you need to include the definite as well.


So tjugohundratals mean the 21st century ?


I guess the 21st century is tjugohundratalet in Swedish. Nominative indefinite form: tjugohundratal; nominative definite form: tjugohundratalet; genitive indefinite form: tjugohundratals; genitive definite form: tjugohundratalets.


So, how do you say "the 21st century?"

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