If one adds "toe" at the end - Ik ga naar deze universiteit toe - does the meaning change at all? I'm thinking of the sentence - Ik ga naar mijn college toe - which appeared in a previous lesson.
If you add 'toe' it means you are actually moving forward to the building, you are walking/driving... towards it. So yes, it is a different meaning. While 'ik ga naar deze universiteit' is just a general saying of being student.
Does this mean "I attend this university" (i.e. I am a student there), or just "I am going to this university" (i.e. in the direction of the campus)?
It can mean both, just like in English, I go to school, it can mean both but it most of the time means that you are a student there
The pronunciation in this one sounds like this is a question. Can any native speaker comment on it?
It sounds like a question although in Dutch we would say: Ga ik naar deze universiteit?