Does this imply just being a student at the university, or physically walking/going there?
It either means being a student, or walking on top of the university building. The most common sense is probably the first one.
I'm trying to understand how the definite form is being used here in the Swedish sentence. In English "Do you go to the university?" refers to a single, particular university. There would be a question about which university we were referring to, unless it was already established. The general question that only asks whether or not someone is a student is "Do you go to university?" without the article. Which of these does the Swedish question ask? Can it be both?
You're right, this Swedish sentence should be translated into English as "Do you go to university", that is the only true English counterpart. "Do you go to the university?" means Går du på det (där) universitetet. It can't be both.
Gå till would mean that you walked to the university, whereas this phrase means that you study there.
I don't agree... LOL ;-) Because I saw "jag går på diskotek", "vi går på museet". osv. So I think that Guh's question is pertinent!
The point still stands. If you "gå på museum", you go to a museum as in you see the exhibits there. But if you "gå till museet", you walked to a certain museum.
Okej! Tack! :) So, we must use "på" only if we are going to stay for a moment in this place. We could for example say: "Gå till museet, vi kommer att vänta på dig där." "Gå på museum, det är väldigt intressant."
I am not sure, but my guess is: we are asking wether a person generally visits university. Maybe it is different, if we ask a student in the morning, before he leaves the house.
Can this phrase relate to the phrase "gå en utbildning"? I've seen it and it doesn't sound most natural to me, can I say "Jag gick en utbildning i svenska språket"?
I'm not sure how you mean by "relate to ", but the phrase "gå en utbildning" is perfectly fine, normal and common. :)
Your example sentence is fine too. It also works just as well with just "svenska".
What is the difference between college - "högskol" and university - "universitet" in Sweden? Can you earn advanced degrees from a college or only from a university?