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- power is "potência (elétrica)" (Not as in "turn the power off", but as the measure in Watts)
- current is "corrente (elétrica)"
- voltage is "(diferença de) potencial (elétrico)" or "voltagem"
- resistence is "resistência (elétrica)"
To say "turn the power on/off" we use "energia", "força", "eletricidade". Normally just "liga (o aparelho/device)" or "desliga" for the entire sentence.
If we want to say "increase the power" (in a general meaning), we use "força, potência".
Corrente has a few meanings. Chain is one, but in this case it means current or flow, like you would use when referring to the movement of electricity or water. Increasing the chain doesn't really make sense. I think if you wanted to add to a chain you would lengthen or elongate it, but increase doesn't work. Increasing the current it legitimate, though, and so that's the correct translation.
Remember that we are doing only exercises, where there could be confusion between flow (water or electricity) and chain. I believe however, in real time speech there should not be a difficulty, because then the context of the sentence will provide the answer. Maybe Duo is a bit harsh in marking "aumente o corrente" for "increasing the chain" as incorrect. In just about all languages there are words with different meanings but the same spelling (homonyms) and only the context will determine the exact meaning.