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Spanish Tenses

How many are there in spanish? and could somebody explain when you do use them?

3 years ago

6 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/clnoy
clnoy
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Spanish has 24 different tenses (from 4 different moods) and 5 impersonal forms:

The 5 impersonal forms are:

Simple forms:

  • Infinitivo: comprar, beber, escribir. To buy, to drink, to write.
  • Participio: comprado, bebido, escrito. Bought, drunk, written.
  • Gerundio: comprando, bebiendo, escribiendo. Buying, drinking, writing.

Compound forms:

  • Infinitivo compuesto: haber comprado, haber bebido, haber escrito. Having bought, having drunk, having written
  • Gerudio compuesto: habiendo comprado, habiendo bebido, habiendo escrito. Having bought, having drunk, having written

The 8 tenses of the Modo Indicativo (indicative mood) are:

Simple forms:

  • Presente: (Yo) Compro el coche; (Yo) Bebo vino; (Yo) Escribo una carta. I buy the car; I drink wine; I write a letter. This tense is also used as an equivalent to the english present continuous.
  • Pretérito perfecto simple: (Yo) Compré el coche; (Yo) Bebí vino; (Yo) Escribí una carta. I bought the car; I drank wine; I wrote a letter.
  • Préterito imperfecto: (Yo) Compraba el coche; (Yo) Bebía vino; (Yo) Escribía una carta. I was buying the car; I was drinking wine; I was writing a letter.
  • Futuro: (Yo) Compraré el coche; (Yo) Beberé vino; (Yo) Escribiré una carta. I will buy the car; I will drink wine; I will write a letter.

Compound forms:

  • Pretérito perfecto compuesto: (Yo) He comprado el coche; (Yo) He bebido vino; (Yo) He escrito una carta. I have bought the car; I have drunk wine; I have written a letter.
  • Pretérito anterior: (Yo) Hube comprado el coche; (Yo) Hube bebido vino; (Yo) Hube escrito una carta. No english equivalent but it's similar to the past perfect. It's also falling into disuse.
  • Pretérito pluscuamperfecto: (Yo) Había comprado el coche; (Yo) Había bebido vino; (Yo) Había escrito una carta. I had bought the car; I had drunk wine; I had written a letter.
  • Futuro perfecto: (Yo) Habré comprado el coche; (Yo) Habré bebido vino; (Yo) Habré escrito una carta. I will have bought the car; I will have drunk wine; I will have written a letter.

The 2 tenses of the Condicional (conditional) are:

Simple form:

  • Condicional: (Yo) Compraría el coche; (Yo) bebería vino; (Yo) Escribiría una carta. I would buy the car; I would drink wine; I would write a letter.

Compound form:

  • Condicional perfecto: (Yo) Habría comprado el coche; (Yo) Habría bebido vino; (Yo) Habría escrito una carta. I would have bought the car; I would have drunk wine; I would have written a letter.

The 7 tenses of the Subjuntivo (subjunctive) are: English has no specific subjunctive tenses so there will be no equivalents.

Simple forms:

  • Presente: Que yo compre el coche; que yo beba vino; que yo escriba la carta.
  • Pretérito imperfecto: Si yo comprara el coche; si yo bebiera vino; si yo escribiera la carta.
  • Pretérito imperfecto 2: Si yo comprase el coche; si yo bebiese vino; si yo escribiese la carta. This tense is used interchangeably with the above pretérito imperfecto del subjuntivo.
  • Futuro: Cuando yo comprare el coche; cuando yo bebiere vino; cuando yo escribiere la carta. This tense is almost never used. It is now replaced with the above presente del subjuntivo.

Compound forms:

  • Pretérito pluscuamperfecto: Si yo hubiera comprado el coche; si yo hubiera bebido vino; si yo hubiera escrito la carta.
  • Pretérito pluscuamperfecto 2: Si yo hubiese comprado el coche; si yo hubiese bebido vino; si yo hubiese escrito la carta. This tense is used interchangeably with the above pretérito pluscuamperfecto del subjuntivo.
  • Futuro perfecto: Cuando yo hubiere bebido; cuando yo hubiere bebido vino; cuando yo hubiere escrito la carta. Like it's simple version, it is also never used. It is now replaced with the presente del subjuntivo.

The 2 tenses of the Imperativo (imperative) are:

  • Imperativo afirmativo: Compra (tú) el coche!; Bebe (tú) el vino!; Escribe (tú) una carta! Buy the car!; drink the wine!; write a letter!
  • Imperativo negativo: (Tú) No compres el coche!; (Tú) No bebas el vino!; (Tú) No escribas una carta! Don't you buy the car!; don't you drink the wine!; don't you write a letter!

Those are all the verb tenses in spanish, but there are more verb constructions to learn.

Spanish equivalents to other english tenses:

These are not real spanish tenses, gramatically speaking, but are equivalents in meaning and construction with some of english tenses.

To construct a continuous tense in spanish that is equivalent to the english continuous tense, you just have to translate each verb and conjugate them accordingly. The construction is: "conjugated 'estar' + verb in 'gerundio'" or "conjugated 'haber' + estado + verb in 'gerundio'".

  • Present continuous: I am buying the car; I am drinking wine; I am writing a letter. (Yo) Estoy comprando el coche; (Yo) Estoy bebiendo vino; (Yo) Estoy escribiendo una carta.
  • Past continuous: I was buying the car; I was drinking wine; I was writing a letter. (Yo) Estaba comprando el coche; (Yo) Estaba bebiendo vino; (Yo) Estaba escribiendo una carta.
  • Future continuous: I will be buying the car; I will be drinking wine; I will be writing a letter. (Yo) Estaré comprando el coche; (Yo) Estaré bebiendo vino; (Yo) Estaré escribiendo una carta.
  • Present perfect continuous: I have been buying the car; I have been drinking wine; I have been writing a letter. (Yo) He estado comprando el coche; (Yo) He estado bebiendo vino; (Yo) He estado escribiendo una carta.
  • Past perfect continuous: I had been buying the car; I had been drinking wine; I had been writing a letter. (Yo) Había estado comprando el coche; (Yo) Había estado bebiendo vino; (Yo) Había estado escribiendo una carta.

I am not sure if the continous form of the future perfect is gramatically correct in spanish, I think it isn't.

So that's it. Wish it helps :)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/tara668
tara668
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Around 15. Depends on how you count. Here https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20120516181523AAlOP29 is someone who counted 20.

For the second question, check out: http://www.esfacil.eu/en/verbs/5-modes-and-tenses-in-spanish.html

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Macjory
Macjory
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How would you answer that question about English verbs? (both how many there are and when to use them?) And are you talking about verb forms, or actual verbs? We'd like to help, but your questions aren't clear enough.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/romastutts
romastutts
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This is a tool I use all the time. Just type in the infinitive form of the verb. It will give you all the possible conjugations and what they mean. If you scroll to the bottom you can find example sentences. http://www.123teachme.com/spanish_verb_conjugation

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/rspreng

When do you use specific verb tenses? That is a "How long is a rope?" sort of a question -- with a long, complex answer. Google is your friend.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Resonance2001

I know what you mean but some are not tenses but moods although I think of them all as tenses. About 14 normal ones, 14 progressive forms (they are easy and only two are used the most). There is a book that explains them fairly well, The Big Red Book of Spanish Verbs, (maybe with 555 on the front). Plus I have done a video series but not on the gerund or imperative as they have not been very popular http://youtu.be/BeqQuJsFJhk Another good book is Oxford Spanish Grammar

3 years ago