"When will he have graduated?"
Translation:När kommer han att ha tagit studenten?
A very awkward Swedish sentence in my opinion. When will anyone ask this? I would rather ask "När ska han ta studenten?"
We'd use this one when speculating about the future. We're discussing this young man's future and when we see his graduating as something that will be completed at a certain point in the future, this is how to say it. Of course we rarely need to use this construction, so your sentence is much more useful, but it doesn't mean the same thing. In English, it would be When will he graduate?, again a very useful sentence, but not the same one we're teaching here.
So I assume that this is sort of a Swedish idiom: ta studenten. Can one give some intuition why take the student would mean to graduate?
To be able to call oneself "student" in Sweden, one formerly needed to pass final exams of late secondary school (Swedish gymnasium). If you passed, you got studentexamen, and hence the expression "ta studenten".
Nowadays, there is no longer a final exam for gymnasiet, but the expression lives on to mean having gone through gymnasiet.
Does it mean that the expression applies only to graduation from the high school? What about graduation from the university?
Yes, from late secondary, comparable to high school. You normally finish it during the year you turn 19.
For graduating from college and university, you'll get a kandidatexamen (Bachelor's degree) for a 3-year education, Masterexamen (Master's degree) for a 5-year education and a PhD is en doktorsexamen.
No. Students of tertiary education (gymnasium) and above are studenter. Before that, in primary and secondary education, you are an elev.
In Finland you still do the matricualtion examination when finishing gymnasium so in Finland the expession is still used in its original form!
(Swedish is the second official language in Finland for those who don't know)
Why do you need "att" here but not elsewhere? Why not: När kommer han ha tagit studenten?
Utexaminera is seen from the perspective not of the student, but the teacher or institution that gives out the degree. So it's usually used in the passive. en utexaminerad ekonom = 'an economist who has received a degree'
is "när ska han har tagit studenten" not possible at least in the case where there is very little chance of him not graduating?
That is correct, though please note that it's only for graduating high school.
Is it acceptable to say "När ska han (att) ha tagit studenten" to mean the same thing?
It's grammatical (without the att), but it will have a meaning closer to "When is he supposed to graduate?"
Thank you! So, to clarify, ska can replace kommer att here, but ska doesn't take att?
ska can replace kommer att here
Yes and no - like I said, it's grammatical but it changes the meaning. They're not interchangeable.
but ska doesn't take att?