As a native English speaker (UK) there is no difference between saying "That table is made from wood" and "That table is made of wood".
Agreed, also feel "that table is wooden" should be accepted here, no other way that would be said Dutch either.
Yes, 'from' wood is the same as 'of' wood and even better English.
I also agree that from and of mean the same thing in this context
That table's made of wood.
You can report that if it's not accepted.
Please explain why DAT tafel would not work
Because "tafel" is a 'de-word', so it takes "de - die - deze" (all ending in -e) while 'het-words' take "het - dat - dit" (all ending in -t).