May 1, 2016: With the new voice, I'm finding it very difficult to hear the beginning of "príomchathair" as a /p/ or /pr/ sound. It sounds more like a /ch/ sound to me (as in the English "chief".) I've listened a few times, even knowing it's "príomhchathair". Does anyone else hear it this way?
It's because of the genitive. If there's the possibility of two definite articles in a phrase that includes genitive, one has to go, and that's the one without the genitive. Country names (most? all?) take a definite article, so "an Fhrainc" for France. "Paris is the capital" would be, "Is é Páras an phríomhchathair," but "Paris is the capital of France" is "Is é Páras príomhchathair na Fraince."
You don't need to be an Arts major to tell the difference between blue and yellow, and you don't need to be an English major (I'm not) to tell the difference between a pronoun and a definite noun. It's worth your while learning a couple of technical terms properly precisely because it allows you to communicate a "rule" in a single line of text, instead of writing a long descriptive text, but it only works if you use the same terms that everyone else uses.
I don't have any problem with the original error - we all make them, and I wasn't trying to be critical of you when I provided a correction, simply trying to help out, as you were. But the dismissive tone of your excuse, as though only English majors care about that sort of thing, seems contrary.
Responses like "I can't do maths because I'm a girl" tend to rub me the wrong way, and the notion that only English majors have to care about grammar terminology falls into a similar category. You obviously understand why the terminology is useful, and you do a disservice to other learners by suggesting that they shouldn't bother learning a few grammar terms that will make it easier to transfer the knowledge that they have about English into Irish. Most of it is just vocabulary, labels for things that we already understand, and sometimes we will get the labels wrong, but when we do, it's not because "Not an English major!", it's just that sometimes people make mistakes - just "Oops!".
When trying to look up the answer myself, GnaG seems to indicate that é is always used as a general subpredicate in the Ulster dialect in particular regardless of the gender of the other objects in the copula. However, that answer doesn't make much sense to me in this context since it implies Duo is using a language prompt that would only make sense to speakers of one particular dialect over any other. Am I missing something?
That's really a question about English, rather than Irish - off hand, I don't know of any capitals that aren't cities, and the terms "capital" and "capital city" are usually interchangeable.
"She does not live in a capital city" - Níl sí ina cónaí i bpríomhchathair
"Dublin is the capital city of the Republic of Ireland" - Is é Baile Átha Cliath príomhchathair Phoblacht na hÉireann
"He does not live in a capital city" - Níl sé ina chónaí i bpríomhchathair
Níl sí ina cónaí i bpríomhchathair - "She does not live in a capital city"
Is é Baile Átha Cliath príomhchathair Phoblacht na hÉireann - "Dublin is the capital city of the Republic of Ireland"