This is a bit advanced but I’ll try to give my view of it.
Firstly, ärende can just be errand, like ”I have a few errands to do’. In more formal language ärende is ’a question (within a certain field) to be dealt with, usually by an administrative authority’
- Vad är ditt ärende? (What brings you here?)
- Det är ett regeringsärende. (It is a government matter; It is something for the government to deal with)
- Det blev ett polisärende. (It became a police matter; it ended up involving the police)
- Övriga ärenden. (Any other business; AOB)
Ärende is also ’item on an agenda’.
- Vad är nästa ärende? (What is the next item on the agenda?)
Otherwise, the normal word for ’case’ is fall as in ett fall för polisen etc. Grammatical case is kasus.
In your first example, I would probably say, "What is your business?", or if I were a security guard, the more demaning, "State your business." I see that your last example is a situation where I would also say "business", such as at a meeting, "Is there any new business?" So would "business" be an appropriate translation of "ärende"?
When I see "case" as the preferred translation, I think of a criminal case (my teens watch way too much NCIS and CSI) or a mystery, so I was confused why DL wasn't liking my use of "fall." I understand now. Thank you.
task is like uppgift in Swedish. I don't think I'd ever translate ärende as task.
Ah, so you tend to think of "task" in English as something externally assigned? Not quite how i think of the word but YMMV.
well, it was accepted for me anyway. what do you think about matter?
(i translated to german angelegenheit and then from german to english, and this was the result.)