"Patienten bars in av två sjuksköterskor."
Translation:The patient was carried in by two nurses.
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"Long" and "short" vowels in English refer to the SOUND, not to the duration of the sound.
Short version: if the vowel "says its name" it's long.
Kate, late, bait, and date all have a LONG A. Cat (kat), bat, sat, and chat have a SHORT A.
Short / long are unfortunate designations, but again, they have absolutely nothing to do with whether the sound is clipped off, emphasized, or drawn out -- even to the point where it might become "singing" the "short" and "long" vowel sounds continue to exist.
In Swedish though, the difference is precisely between long and short vowels [with a long vs short duration] so for our purposes it's a very useful and necessary distinction. The sound in bärs = 'is being carried' is [æː] and the sound in bärs = 'beer' is [æ]. Same sound, only long or short.
It's true that there's also a difference in vowel quality in the case of e.g. long /a/ vs short /a/ = [ɑː] vs [a] but the long /a/ is still long. The consonant sound is also longer after a short vowel and shorter after a long vowel. This is something that you don't really have in English so the distinction may take some time to get used to and it may even be hard to hear the difference at first. If you keep listening, you'll hear it more clearly.
I think in some American English accents and in RP, the "a" in "bad" is often longer than the "a" in "bat", but since the vowel length is not needed to tell words apart in English, it is going to be more difficult for an English speaker to hear the difference. In some northern British accents, the short "a" generally seems very short, so you could try to compare such an accent to your own. A long vowel is simply longer than a short vowel.
You are hearing a retroflex :).
Note that it normally happens also between words, e.g. in "Hon bär sin hund (she carries her dog).