in Swedish professor an academic university title and the name for the highest educated teachers at a university. Lärare (teacher) is just any person who teaches.
Yes, typically. I’d say ”min lärare” about my university professor. When speaking to them, we usually use first names in Sweden.
Is "Professor" used in the British style, where it's a prestigious title that only some university faculty have, or like the American style where it's anyone who teaches at a university?
I agree with eal_duo as for the model utterance; having the definite species "professorn" indicates the need of translating it "the professor". - So, there is some discrepancy between exercise stuff and the solution!