Thanks for that. But you know, the TENS, no, probably, hundreds! of times I've used words such as "has" as it sounded completely acceptable and got it wrong... So this time, I thought... sighhhhh... I'll put "is" as that's the Italian way!... Nope! Wrong! Ha ha... I had to laugh.
Still. Thank you on è being "has" in this instance :)
It's not like people actually say "Winter has passed" either. "Winter is over", that's the common diction.
"Winter has passed" IMO is no less "poetic" than "Winter is passed". I guess the idea is to focus on the verb structure of present perfect, which is an auxiliary + past participle, rather than present + predicate nominative, which is actually simple present.
PS I got it wrong the first time through this module.
è passato is like
è morto. Duo allows
has died and
is dead for
è morto. This is because in English
dead basically means
having died, so there is no difference in meaning. In many ways,
died as the participle of
a dead man, not *
a died man.
has passed is probably more common than
is passed. Kind of like
has come versus
is passed seems more archaic or poetic (although much more natural than
is come). Perhaps they want to stress that
essere forms and
avere forms are both equally passive, but I think that is clear enough. Edit: I meant “equally perfect”. Oops.
is passed in English can also work like a regular passive: The van is passed by the ambulance. I wonder: how does Italian express that? Does it use
Here is my takeaway: The verb passare can be either transitive or intransitive. When transitive, passato prosimo uses avere as the auxiliary, e.g. La ragazza mi ha passato. When intransitive, passato prosimo uses essere as the auxiliary, e.g. Il tempo è passato."
We have a parallel in English, where "pass" can be transitive, as in "The girl passes me" or intransitive as in "Time passes." When the verb is transitive, we also can use passive voice, as in "I am passed by the girl," but there is no passive voice for intransitive verbs.
In English, we make a distinction between present perfect tense, as in "The girl has passed me," and past tense, as in "The girl passed me." Italian does not make this distinction, so La ragazza mi ha passato. can be translated either way.
Similarly I believe, L'inverno è passato could be "The winter has passed" in present perfect tense or "The winter passed" in past tense. This is modern English. If you say "The winter is passed" to indicate present perfect tense, you are speaking the English of the King James Bible, not modern English.
In modern English we also say "The winter is past," and I believe that would also be translated into Italian as L'inverno è passato. Are there any Italian speakers who can tell me if I am right about that?
The reply above mine is absolutely correct. There are certain verbs that have to have the correct form of "essere" in front of the "present perfect" verb, and "passare" is one of those verbs.
It is also true that you need to memorize them, because "avere" goes in front of more verbs than "essere" does, in these cases.
Whoever downvoted mangoHero1's answer should be ashamed of themselves!
You're quite correct that the verb "passare" is sometimes conjugated with the verb "avere." For example, we say "hai passato la piazza" (and not "sei passato la piazza"), given that you are transitively passing something.
But in the present case, winter didn't pass anything (such as a piazza), which means that we call this situation intransitive, which in turn means that we must use the verb "essere," as better explained by CaterinaRosina on this page.
Reflexive verbs use "essere" All the rest use "avere", except a few non-reflexive verbs like passare.
If a verb doesn't have a reflexive pronoun, it's not reflexive, so you use avere, except for the, well, exceptions. Make a list of non-reflexives that use essere. Review it from time to time. Here's a list I got off the internet by googling "Italian verbs using essere". Note how many of them involve movement (including non-movement - to stay, for instance), which is another hint about possible use of essere. Others you have to remember, but I do note that quite a few have to do with some sort of fundamental condition: to die, to exist, to be born, to appear disappear, or are of very common usage: to cost, to depend, so you'd at least have some greater exposure to their use. There are more, I assume.
Verb Participle English
andare andato to go
apparire apparso to appear
arrivare arrivato to arrive
costare costato to cost
dipendere dipeso to depend
entrare entrato to enter
esistere esistito to exist
essere stato to be
giungere giunto to arrive, to succeed
morire morto to die
nascere nato to be born
partire partito to leave
passare passato to pass
piacere piaciuto to be pleasing [to like]
rimanere rimasto to remain, to stay
sparire sparito to disappear
stare stato to stay, to be
succedere successo to happen
tornare tornato to come back, to return
uscire uscito to go out
venire venuto to come