Oh, that explains it. Well. I am not sure I have a good gramatical explanation. But the short form of you - tě does not really stand at the end of a sentence. Sounds really really archaic. If you said "Já miluju tebe", it is more acceptable but with this particular word sequence you are pointing out that it is YOU I love. While a simple I love you (or I see you) would be Já tě miluju. Já tě vidím. If you used the long form "tebe" here (Já tebe miluju), once again you are pointing out that is is you I love. So "normal" typical sentence is ether "Já tě miluju" or "Já miluju tebe" with the first being the winner of them all.
I hope you realize that being a native Czech speaker I just pulled all this out of my sleeve. It is what it means but I have no good explanation why it is so, because as any native speaker of anything it just makes the most sense and sounds the best.
Thank you very much for the explanation.
I know this isn't exactly the best place to ask for help (this should be for Czech speakers trying to learn English). But unfortunately there is no Czech for English speakers course yet, or at least a forum to ask questions. Until I found Duolingo and this course I didn't find any way to learn Czech (or Slovak) that worked for me. Feel free to delete any of my questions after a while if you think they are standing in the way of those trying to learn English.
Be prepared for two very unpleasant surprises:
Czech word order is incredibly complicated. By far the most complicated of any language I've learned.
Very few Czechs believe this. Most will tell you Czech word order is flexible, but straightforward. They aren't lying; they're just totally oblivious. They've internalised all the rules, and therefore don't need to think about them, so they don't even realise there are any.
Ask away. One of those days we will start working on en-cz and it is going to be way more difficult than going the other way round. Teaching native language as a second language comes with a lot of cans of very huge and nasty worms. Having somebody ask questions might point us in a right direction of what exactly is needed.
Je na vás, jestli si pořídíte seriózní slovník. Zdroje na internetu jsou užitečné, ale spíš pro hledání příbuzných slov. Já bablu používám taky, ale často jsou tam jako překlady uvedeny pojmy, které znamenají cosi odlišného.
Tady vám i serióznější slovníky za pravdu dají, jen vám nevysvětlí, že ne každý překlad se hodí do všech situací. Třeba "I just LOVE this soup" je sice gramaticky správná věta, ale jak z úst afektovaného debila.
Já osobně nemiluju věci, ale jen lidi, a mám tě ráda je sice hezké, ale na úroveň miluju tě prostě mít nemůže. Nepochází-li z úst, ve kterých byly internetem setřeny všechny rozdíly.