What is the functional difference between yrke and karriär?
Yrke is your job, karriär is the long-term development of it.
Are 'jobb' and 'yrke' interchangeable?
More or less. Think of jobb as "job" and yrke as "profession".
Can I say it using definite form? 'Det är det populära yrket'? I mean do you use 'det är det ...' construction?
Sure! Perfect translation of "It/That is the popular trade."
How do you pronounce yrke?
Ett yrke: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/yrke#Pronunciation
Would occupation work as well? It has a broader meaning as it includes unskilled as well as skilled and professional work.
Sure, that's an excellent translation.
Why not career?
That would be karriär.
Is "work" a good mnemonic for "yrke" (profession)?