Is "Ik ben voor een wandeling gegaan" also correct?
That's technically correct, but I don't think any native would say it like that, probably similar to the English sentence I chose to go for a walk.
Ik ging voor een wandeling?
Seems like that's used a ton if google search results are any reference.
If I google for that it says "134.000" results, though it does not show more than 1.5 pages of results. The pages that it does show seem to be all (bad) translations from other languages.
Fair enough, didn't see that it was limited to two pages :)
Although I still must ask if it's grammatically incorrect also.
Grammatically there is not much wrong with it and people will understand what you are saying, it's just that people don't say it like that.
Is "Ik ging een eindje lopen" not correct?
The sentence is grammatically correct and people could say it too, but it's not the literal translation here, because you need to write "een wandeling" as the translation for " a walk".
Wat is fout met "ik ging voor een wandeling"?
Stuk en stukje is hetzelfde