If someone were to ask you Är du ledsen? how would you distinguish between whether they meant sorry or sad?
I've seen "jag är mycket ledsen" being used to say "i'm sorry" in phrasebooks, is this a different context? How to tell when to use which?
Ledsen means sad, but it can be used in phrases with sorry as well.
"I am sorry" can be förlåt, förlåt mig, jag är ledsen, jag är mycket ledsen etc.
Are those phrases used interchangeably or are they used in certain situations (like depending on the formality)? Also if I'm not mistaken förlåt itself means forgive right?
Yes, you are right. Maybe the "förlåt" ones a bit more formal. By the way, you can also say
Det var tråkigt att höra - I am sorry to hear that
I know that there can be misunderstandings, since "tråkig" means boring :).
Haha that's hilarious. "It was boring to hear" XD I had to look it up, and apparently the middle ground is "unpleasant" - which is another meaning of tråkig.
Tack för förklara det! (or how you can say that correctly ;-; I'm sorry, I'm not good yet)
We've borrowed "Sorry" from English as well, you might well hear it in a Swedish context.
im finding questions a bit confusing... for example "springer du?" and "Är du ledsen?" are there rules for where the pronoun is placed in the question?
In non-question sentences, the verb goes to the second position ("V2 rule"): Du springer; Du är ledsen. When you change it into a question, the verb goes to the front and the subject (whether pronoun or otherwise) follows, as in your examples. The rest of the sentence follows the subject.
I'm a little confused what is the difference between Ursäkta and Ledsen and when would you use them?
If you bump into someone on the subway, you say "ursäkta".
If you hurt someone's feelings, you are ledsen about it.
Ledsen is an adjective meaning "sorry" - are you sorry?; he is sorry, etc.
Ursäkta can be a verb (to excuse someone) or an interjection - sorry!; excuse me!, etc.