"lo" and "gli" seem to confuse people. Think of "lo" as a replacement for "lui/him" and "gli" as a replacement for "a lui/to him." As in, "gli leggi" meaning "you read TO HIM" and "lo vedo" meaning I see him.
When we say "I read him the book" in English, we are really saying "I read to him the book." Think of it that way.
here's a table listed by pronoun, sometimes visualization helps
So glad to hear that: both that it helps, and that you are past the clitics lesson. It is rough for us all. Inspired by your generocity I am posting a link to my favorite explanation of ci and ne
Quite useful! If you could also add "te" to the mix, it would be complete, IMHO. Thanks muchly!
- chi mi aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta me adesso? = who helps me now?
- chi ti aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta te adesso? = who helps you now?
l'aiuta is the contracted form of lo/la aiuta
• chi lo aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta lui adesso? = who helps him now?
• chi la(1) aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta lei adesso? = who helps her now?
- chi ci aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta noi adesso? = who helps us now?
- chi vi aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta voi adesso? = who helps you guys now?
- chi li aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta loro adesso? = who helps them now? (2+ men)
- chi le aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta loro adesso? = who helps them now? (2+ women)
(1) • chi La aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta Lei adesso? = who helps you now? (formal tu)
Yes, we know that it is one person helping because it's 'aiuta'. But the l' does not give any indication whether it's a male or female person being helped. So the aiuta lets us know it is Who is, rather than Who are but whether the person being helped is him or her is not specified in the Italian.
In this case it is the contraction of lo or la (him or her) Here is a simple chart I made to help me get started.
Interesting question! Since chi can mean both 'who' and 'whom' I suppose it must be 'chi aiuta adesso?' That would also mean 'who helps now?' So maybe if you needed to make it clear you could say 'chi lui aiuta adesso?' However this is the blind leading the blind so please help, someone who can give an authoritative answer!