"lo" and "gli" seem to confuse people. Think of "lo" as a replacement for "lui/him" and "gli" as a replacement for "a lui/to him." As in, "gli leggi" meaning "you read TO HIM" and "lo vedo" meaning I see him.
When we say "I read him the book" in English, we are really saying "I read to him the book." Think of it that way.
here's a table listed by pronoun, sometimes visualization helps
Here's a lingot. This is awesome, thanks. It literally helped me complete this lesson, which I'd been struggling with for ages.
So glad to hear that: both that it helps, and that you are past the clitics lesson. It is rough for us all. Inspired by your generocity I am posting a link to my favorite explanation of ci and ne
Your chart must have helped an awful lot of people over the last 4 years xyphax. I refer to it many times and really recommend it to anyone struggling with this lesson. Thank you again 4 years on!
- chi mi aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta me adesso? = who helps me now?
- chi ti aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta te adesso? = who helps you now?
l'aiuta is the contracted form of lo/la aiuta
- chi lo aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta lui adesso? = who helps him now?
- chi la aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta lei adesso? = who helps her now?
- chi ci aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta noi adesso? = who helps us now?
- chi vi aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta voi adesso? = who helps you guys now?
- chi li aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta loro adesso? = who helps them now? (2+ men)
- chi le aiuta adesso? = chi aiuta loro adesso? = who helps them now? (2+ women)
These sentences are extremely useful even after three years. Thanks a lot for your time and effort! You certainly deserve a lingot for this list!
Yes but in English the normal word order is I read him the book OR I read the book to him.
Because "aiuta" is a singular verb. If more than one person helps, you say "aiutano".
"aiuta" is a singular verb, which means that "chi" has a singular meaning, i.e., what (singular) person helps him now? If it was more than one person helping, it would be "chi aiutano". I agree that "him" being singular is not relevant.
There's no indication of the gender, "him" or "her". But if more than one person was being helped, it would be "Chi li aiuta" (or "Chi le aiuta" if they were known to be all women).
OK, but how do we know it's "him" and not "her" or "them"? I see that the subject ("chi") is singular, but what about the object ("l' ")?
But doesn't "aiuto" go with "who"?
"Him" is not the person helping, but the person who is being helped.
Yes, we know that it is one person helping because it's 'aiuta'. But the l' does not give any indication whether it's a male or female person being helped. So the aiuta lets us know it is Who is, rather than Who are but whether the person being helped is him or her is not specified in the Italian.
yes it is, because it says l'aiuta, no stop between the words, single syllable between "l" and "a"(first letter of aiuta)
Ironic that I seem to get this as the first question every time I attempt this lesson!
It didn't accept "Who is helping you (formal) now?" Was I wrong or is it a glitch?
I really wonder how important this sentence is. Because this may be twentieth time i confront it. By the time, many sentences that i meet once but sure i would like to know better, simply fly away.
l' is the contraction of what here? I would like to know the corresponding Italian word for it..
In this case it is the contraction of lo or la (him or her) Here is a simple chart I made to help me get started.
No problem. One should really only use them as starter notes, because there are a lot of rules, and I am just learning too. I am finding mostly practice and reading the comments helps :-)