"Jag har en apelsin."
Translation:I have an orange.
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No, they don't translate into each other. You use "an" in english, when the first (spoken) letter of the noun is a vowel. So you can say, it's a phonetic thing.
"En" and "ett" relate to the gender of a thing. "en" words have a grammatical gender and "ett" words are 'neutral'. So its a part of the noun itself. (You just have to learn them.)
Talking about oranges you mean :)?
Well, vilja is the infinitive form so it is "jag vill"
want + noun = "vill ha" + noun
tårta is an en-word
Jag vill ha en smörgåstårta.
"Jag vill ha smörgåstårta" without the article works as well.
"Jag skulle vilja ha (en) smörgåstårta" = I would like (a) sandwich cake