"I was born in the summer."
Translation:Jag är född på sommaren.
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It's too big a question to cover extensively, but just a few short hints.
days with på – på måndag – 'on Monday' (also på natten, på dagen)
months with i – i november – 'in November'
seasons with på – på sommaren – 'in summer'
years with no preposition född 1980 – 'born in 1980'
decades with på – på nittiotalet – 'in the 90s'
centuries also with på – *på nittonhundratalet – 'in the 1900s' or 'in the 20th century'
For places, the general idea is much the same as in English: på is like 'on' – 'on top of' and i is like 'in' – inside. The problem of course is that for abstract meanings when we aren't really 'on top of' or 'inside' something, the languages often make different choices.
So it's not unexpected that we say i skogen 'in the forest (a situation where we're clearly 'inside' something) and på golvet 'on the floor' (clearly 'on top of') but other cases aren't that clear.
Many institutions/activities use på, e.g: på jobbet 'at work', på bio 'at the movies'. But there are lots of exceptions, too.
föda (föder/födde) is a verb, but from what I know its mostly used as the verb for giving birth, so literally translated in this sentence is 'I am birthed in summer).
Föddes (passive form) is used to state youre born somewhere so I believe 'Jag föddes på sommaren' could also be correct.
The TTS on this phrase gives a really clear hard "g" on "jag", and I think this is the first time I've really heard it from the TTS. Is there a rule as to when the "g" is pronounced this way?
And, if the sentence were spoken in English with that emphasis, it'd be implying that the "I" is in contrast to someone else. Similar in Swedish?