For regions, I have other examples -
Götaland was called Gothia, Gothenland, Gothland and Geatland
Dalarna used to be called Dalecarlia or the Dales
But those names do not survive into modern English. Another name that you maybe forget SWEDEN is English name for Sverige.
The difference is actually the form of government in many cases, which tend to change as a community grows and needs more people in different roles to run it. I live in a small city (pop. about 5,500 and growing) that was officially a village a decade or so ago. They now have a City Council, Mayor and City Manager.