"Je drinkt het sap."
Translation:You drink the juice.
You can indeed use nouns without an article in Dutch! However, if you wanted to translate "I drink juice," it would simply be "Ik drink sap." "Ik drink het sap" translates to "I drink the juice." As ionateus said above, it isn't likely you would use the article unless you're talking about a specific juice, but that's simply the sentence provided. :)
You can use both as a subject. The only difference is that there can be a difference in emphasis, with jij being considered as stressed/marked and je being considered as unstressed/unmarked. The same is the case for ze/zij we/wij. However, saying that, in my opinion it is only something you need to worry about when you start becoming fluent in Dutch.
The difference between je and jij is that jij puts more stress and emphasis on the pronoun. This is also the case with the following pronouns:
- wij / we
- zij / ze
- mij / me
- jou / je
- jouw / je
Some of these pronouns aren't taught until later in the course, so if you don't know what some of these pronouns are don't worry about it. :)
To make it easy, it can be both. If you fully properly pronounce it is more as in "hat", if you don't fully pronounce it it is more as "Hut" (ut).
This website is quite good on all the different pronunciations in Dutch (with sound). Look for het for the full proper pronunciation and for 't for the short pronunciation (also called voiceless e)
It's a matter of verb conjugation. Just as how in English we have "drink" and "drinks," most languages have several conjugations for verbs, some more than others. Luckily conjugating in Dutch is on the simpler side. Here is a good website for conjugating (though you can also conjugate verbs on woordenlijst!).
The verb "to drink" conjugates as follows in Dutch:
- ik drink = I drink
- je/jij drinkt = You drink
- hij/ze/zij/het drinkt = He/she/it drinks
- we/wij drinken = We drink
- jullie drinken = You (all) drink
- ze/zij drinken = They drink
As you can see, Dutch verbs have three conjugations in the present tense.