Min=my singular, Mina=my plural Example: Min hund=my dog, Mina hundar=my dogs. I hope this helps.
mitt for singular ett words, min for singular en words, mina for plural of both.
Min is for '' en '' (for example en pojke = min pojke , en flicka = min flicka) and Mitt for '' ett '' (for example ett barn = mitt barn, ett äpple = mitt äpple) I figured it out thanks to Wikipedia (but in French) I guess you can search for better explanations if needed
Would one ever say "Jag läser böckerna" to mean the same thing? I know the possessive in English often translates to the definite in Swedish (and French too).
We do that with things when you're 1) expected to have your own ones 2) you're expected to do whatever to your own ones rather than to someone else's. I always tell people that Jag borstar tänderna 'I'm brushing my teeth' is the perfect example. – Not everyone has teeth, but in principle everyone is more or less expected to have them. And it's most likely that you'll be brushing your own. With books, these assumptions just aren't strong enough, so you need to specify.
This one is hard to unterstand just listening. Sounded like "er läser mina böcker" to me.
I don't think it is – I hear it as ja in the fast version and jag in the slow, both sound quite OK to me. (I mean Swedish ja / jag, not the English versions).
No, the first vowel does not really exist in English. It’s like the ”e”-sound in extra except you have to round your lips a lot when you say it.