"Gaat alles goed?"
Translation:Is everything going well?
Thank you for the clarity. So this points out that "I'm doing well" is perhaps the correct form of "I'm doing good" to the question: "Is everything going ok/well? or how are you doing?" (With reference to the fact that adverb modifies a verb, and adjective modifies a noun).
The noun after it. In this case, it's 'goed' because it's a predicative adjective - which means it's alone at the end of the sentence, without any noun. Normally you can also see 'goede', actually most of the times (when there is an Article + Adjective + "de-word", it's always 'goede'). When it's Article + Adjective + "het-word", it's only 'goede' when the article HET is clearly used, otherwise (when it's "EEN" + "het-word", or when it's a "het-word" without the 'het' appearing in the sentence) it's always GOED. Hope it helps you!
No, it's not literal. It would be the literal translation of "Alles gaat goed?" - not a question form in either language. The word-for-word literal translation of "Gaat alles goed?" would be "Goes all well?" or "Goes everything well?". However, questions in modern English are formulated with auxiliary verbs, so we have "Does everything go well?" or the (in this case) better "Is everything going well?".
I keep stumbling over "Gaat alles goed?" in practice here because I frequently say "All goes well?" rather than "How're you doing?" or "How's the world treating you?" at the start of a conversation, and I've never had the conversation crash to a halt while the person I'm speaking to tries to fathom what I mean. The words, if not the order, are exactly the same, and frankly as a native speaker of English I find "Is all going well?" no more comfortable in my mouth from a colloquial standpoint.
Actually there are three mistakes: 1) word order. As this is a question there's subject-(finite) verb inversion. Therefore we need a finite verb before the subject, in this case, at the very beginning of the question.
2) lack of a finite verb -going is actually a verb, but as it's in the present participle it's a non-finite verb, and every sentence needs a finite verb. It's as if the finite verb were the heart of a sentence: without a heart, you cannot live. Thus, we need to add "is".
3) adjective used where an adverb must be used (as you already pointed out).