They might say "with whom are you?" though. But more likely they will say "who are you with?" which sounds less stuffy. I once read from a writer giving advice to would-be writers saying, "Don't make your characters use perfect grammar unless you want them to sound like a stuffed shirt."
Every English speaker should learn when to use formal, informal and idiomatic forms of the language. Your first example would be formal, but I would say "You are with whom?". The inflection would indicate the interrogative. The second example is ungrammatical but idiomatic. Dialogue in a novel would not have to adhere to all the grammar rules, obviously.
So, both of your replies just kind of condescendingly ignore the fact that you are super wrong. Like, did you click the link? It might not have been the nicest way to present information but that doesn't make the information incorrect.
The rules you keep citing are not correct for current English.
1) "Whom" is no longer in everyday use. "You stabbed WHO?" is just as valid a question as "You stabbed WHOM?".
2) Sentences can now be (and always have been) ended with prepositions.
That's actually a common misconception (unfortunately purported by many misguided English teachers), which simply isn't true. Not only is it not observed--it's not even a real rule. It (and the similar situation of starting a sentence with a coordinating conjunction) is actually a rule from Latin which died away in the language's transition to German.
In German, ending sentences with prepositions became the basis of an extremely important grammatical feature (verbs with separable prefixes, for all you German aficionados out there), and the rule faded.
English is not directly Latin but instead passed through being German first, and thus we inherit many properties from mama German. One of these is that, unlike Latin, a preposition is something a sentence can be ended with. ;)
The more you know!
Okay, so the general word order for questions like this in Italian is: Preposition, then question word (who, what, when...), then subject (can be omitted), then verb. Am I correct to assume this for all questions that involve a "question word"? (for lack of a better term)
"Whom are you with" is the grammatically correct English. "Who are you with" is actually grammatically incorrect slang. But most people aren't grammatically correct when they speak. That's true of native speakers of any language. Strictly correct grammar sounds stilted when you're speaking casually.
Well, whom are you with is grammatically correct. It sounds pretentious, but a lot of people would argue that it is "more correct" than who are you with. It's actually a relic of applying too much logic to what is "correct" and what is "incorrect" when speaking English.
Try thinking of who and whom as he and him. where "he" will fit, "who" will be correct. He is my friend. Who is my friend. Where "him' will sound right, "whom" will sound right. You're going with him? You're going with whom? I have found that the easiest way to keep it straight
Try to remember that we are learning the way to say it in Italian. English speakers can figure out what the translation is trying to say, so relax and remember how to say it in Italian. If you already know English, don't sweat the variety of translations possible in our elastic language.
I would like to know how to turn off the notes to me saying I am losing ground with other people etc., etc., I had some old pretentious schoolmarm type bawl me out by telling me not to ask questions that have already been asked. So now I do not post questions anymore. I am not in this for competition. I am just trying to acclimate myself to the language again. I do do it everyday but resent it when the system tells me I am falling behind, etc., etc...How do I turn those notices off?