In English, a verb that is being negated or used in a question (except "to be", but that's another story) needs an auxiliary of some sort. That auxiliary can be a modal or other auxiliary verb ('Can' you help me?/I 'can'not help you.) or an interrogative word ('Who' has the keys?), but if neither of these are necessary, the default auxiliary is "to do" (I 'do' not have the keys.)
While it is more complex than it probably needs to be, that's just how the language works. Dutch doesn't use this setup, so there is no word that translates "do" in this sentence.