The adverbial has three possible places in the sentence, at the start, at the end, or in the so called fourth place (which often equals 'after the verb'). It's hard to give any firm rules for this, it depends both on meaning/function of the adverbial and sometimes its length also matters. I wrote some about it here under 1.1:
tl;dr; for this case is that time adverbials usually go at the end or at the start.
The German equivalent word for the Swedish andra would be andere/n = other/s
Annan, annat would be Anders in German, remembering that there is a swedish name Anders, where rs = rsh but in German we just say = r+s like the "s" in English "still", so it's anders, which means different.
Erm, no. "Jag bor i ett annat hus nu." in German "Ich wohne jetzt in einem anderen Haus.", ie no annat = anders (which by the way will not be capitalized except at the beginning of sentences).
Don't agree with the Austrians write like they speak neither. Never seen anything like anners or annan in German formal writing, might occur in slang write like in social media or (very) informal/casual written communication.