"He is the enemy of the public."

Translation:Is é namhaid an phobail é.

3 years ago

23 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/mpbell
mpbell
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Still struggling to know when I need "é" twice.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
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The second é is the sentence’s subject. The first é is the sentence’s subpredicate, which is needed to separate the copula from a definite predicate, since they’re not allowed to be adjacent.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/djzeus01
djzeus01
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Do you mean, basically, that it's "Is X é," but it's "Is é an X é?" (Except that in this case, the "an" is dropped, because this is a genitive?)

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
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If X is the sentence’s predicate, then yes, the basic structure Is X é. When X is a definite noun phrase comprising an N, it becomes Is é an N é. When a definite noun phrase includes a genitive noun, e.g. N an G, it becomes Is é N an G é. In the N an G case, both N and G are definite, despite the lack of an an before N. Because it remains definite, the subpredicate (the first é) is still needed.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Misteb

OK, forget the X and the Y and G and the N nonsense. Please, just show us in plain Irish the translation of: (A) "he is THE enemy of the public" vs. (B) "he is AN enemy of the public." We will understand (A) better after we see (B). Thank you.

3 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Misteb

Another way to look at this is to consider English genitive using the apostrophe-s form. This requires only one definite article. As in: "He is THE public's enemy." However, "He is A public enemy" --- that's no longer genitive, is it?

3 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Smith_Bill

Why is the definite article not needed for "the enemy?"

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
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In a definite noun phrase with a genitive component, only the last article is retained in the phrase — for example, in iníon fhear an tí (“the daughter of the man of the house”), all of the nouns are definite.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/iongantas
iongantas
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Yeah, I don't know why I need is here instead of tá. And I also don't understand the two é's, even with scilling's explanation. What exactly is a copula? I've seen this referenced by users here, but I don't recall seeing it in the materials.

3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mpbell
mpbell
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3 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MartinKrug
MartinKrug
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Thanks for all your replies and comments

8 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/becky3086
becky3086
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I believe the copula is "Is". I don't know why people can't just say that but as far as the rest of the explanation, it was totally over my head too. I came to see why "an" was not "the" but I am sure it is just another exception that we never got introduced to before.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Grandtricia
Grandtricia
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Copula is a linguistic term that describes the linkage of two nouns. Like in: 'he is a teacher' where 'is' is the copula. Its use is necessary in a lot of indo-european languages.

9 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mpbell
mpbell
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In addition to meaning "the," an can be the question form of the copula: An dochtúir é?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/becky3086
becky3086
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Okay, but this isn't a question....

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mpbell
mpbell
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An in this sentence does mean "the." It goes in an unusual place in a phrase like "the enemy of the public." You only use an once, and it goes between the two nouns.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/becky3086
becky3086
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Go raibh maith agat. Just like I thought, lol, another exception. I am sure I will eventually get used to them all. We have just as many exceptions to the rules in English, I'm sure.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/clairelanc3
clairelanc3
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When do we need "é" twice? I am not "struggling to know" It's the first time I meet it and would like to know...

10 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Marie-Clai133496

I think it works that way:

1 Is é an múinteoir é = he is the teacher

2 Is múinteoir é = he is a teacher

So similarly :

1 Is é namhnaid an phobail é = he is the public enemy.

2 Is namhaid é = he is an enemy.

If the first sentence in each example refers to identification , and the second sentence to classification, then it means I have finally understood what these grammar terms mean...Please correct me if I am wrong.

8 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL

The key point is that a definite noun can't come immediately after the copula is - you have to insert a subpredicate to separate them. The complicating factor here is that in the genitive phrase namhaid an phobail, the definite article in the middle of the phrase also serves to make namhaid definite.

Scilling details this in a previous comment on this thread.

This what Gramadach na Gaeilge says:

Preceding definite predicative nouns(e.g. with an article) one must always additionally include the appropriate pronoun é/í/iad as a so-called subpredicate (fofhaisnéis), because a definite noun is not allowed directly following the copula.
e.g.: í an bhean = the woman, é mo theach = my house

http://nualeargais.ie/gnag/kopul5.htm#bestimmtes%20Pr%c3%a4dikat

8 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/stachysbetonica

why "namhaid an phobail" and not "namhaid den phobail" - isn't he an enemy of the public?

7 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SatharnPHL

That "of" is why you use the tuiseal ginideach here. "the enemy of the public" is the same as "the public's enemy", so you don't explicitly translate "of". In a sentence like "one of those things", you can't recast it to remove the "of", so you do explicitly translate it.

An hour after I posted this answer, schilling posted a far more detailed description of the tuiseal ginideach in this thread: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/26948882

7 months ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SimonDunne2

Does this also translate as "He is an enemy of the public" ?

6 months ago
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