"Ní dheachaigh mé go dtí a theach inné."
Translation:I did not go to his house yesterday.
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You use the dependent form of a verb after the interrogative and negative particles an and ní (and some other particles). For most verbs, the dependent form of the verb is now the same as the independent form of the verb, but for some of the irregular verbs, the dependent form is still different from the independent form. So, for the verb bí, you have the independent form tá in the present tense, but the dependent form fuil is seen in an bhfuil and níl (derived from ní fhuil), and the past tense independent form bhí, but the dependent form raibh, used in an raibh and ní raibh.
For the irregular verb téigh, the dependent form is the same as the independent form in the present and future tenses, but different in the past tense (chuaigh and deacaigh). feic and déan also have different dependent forms in the past tense (chonaic and faca, rinne and dearna).
The "dependent" form of a verb is used after certain verbal particles, such as the negative particle ní or the interrogative particle an. (It "depends" on the presence of the particle). For regular verbs, the dependent and independent forms are the same. For irregular verbs, the dependent and independent forms may be the same or different.
tá is the present tense independent form, fuil is the present tense dependant form. In the past tense, bhí is independent, raibh is dependent. In the case of téigh, the forms are the same in the present tense, but you have chuaigh for the independent form in the past tense, and deachaigh for the dependent form.
Is rud éigin eile ar fad é an saorbhriathar/"autonomous".
mo ("my") isn't a possessive pronoun ("mine") - Irish doesn't have possessive pronouns. Mo is a possessive adjective, but as it identifies a specific house ("the" house that is mine), it has the qualities of a definite article for this purpose.
But go dtí isn't restricted to use before an article anyway, it's that you don't use go before an, you always use go dtí before an.