REGIONS OF ITALY:
Aosta Valley=Valle d'Aosta
South Tyrol=Alto Adige Tuscany=Toscana
OTHER ITALIAN CITIES:
ITALIAN PHYSICAL ELEMENTS (mountains, seas, rivers, valleys...):
Mont Blanc=Monte Bianco
Mt. Vesuvius= Vesuvio
Po Valley= Pianura Padana
Amalfi Coast=Costiera Amalfitana
Adriatic Sea= Mar Adriatico
Mediterranean Sea=Mar Mediterraneo
Thyrrenian Sea=Mar Tirreno
Ionian Sea= Mar Ionio (you can find also the spelling Jonio, but the sound of semivocalic i is the same)
OTHER CITIES OF THE WORLD:
Munich=Monaco di Baviera
Frankfurt am Mein=Francoforte sul Meno (the part "sul Meno" is as optional as it is in English)
Passau=Passavia (the first a is stressed)
Austria e Svizzera (Switzerland)
Sankt Gall=San Gallo
Bruxelles=Bruxelles (Brussells is less used)
the Flenders=le Fiandre
Saint Petersburg=San Pietroburgo
Ex-Iugoslavia, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania e Ungheria
Koper=Capodistria (literally head of Istria)
Maribor=Marburgo (yes, same name as the German city)
Dubrovnik=Ragusa (yes, there is another Sicilian city with the same name)
Zakynthos=Zacinto (or Zante)
I included the islands too as they are quite central in Greece's political geography despite them being a physical feature and are well well known among Europe.
Ex-Cecoslovacchia (Former Czecoslovakia) e Polonia (Poland):
Wroclaw/Breslau=Breslavia (the first a is stressed)
Krakow=Cracovia (the o is stressed)
Ucraina, Bielorussia e Paesi baltici (Baltic countries)
L'viv=Leopoli (stress on the first o)
Sevastopol=Sebastopoli (same as Lviv)
Medio Oriente (Middle East)
Jerusalem=Gerusalemme (stress on the first e)
Tel Aviv=Tel Aviv
Asia Centrale e Afghanistan:
City names are not translated except for
Asia meridionale (Southern Asia)
New Delhi=Nuova Delhi
Kathmandu=Katmandu (the last vowel is stressed)
Sud-Est Asiatico, Indonesia e Filippine (Philippines)
Basically every city bears the same name it has in English, except for Jakarta=Giacarta
Cina, Penisola Coreana e Giappone
Tokyo=Tokyo, but sometimes you can find also Tokio (same pronounciation though)
Pyongyang=Pyongyang (yes, believe it or not we didn't change it and I think it contains weird and difficult sounds for Italians)
Australia, Nuova Zelanda e resto dell'Oceania
Every city bears exactly the same name it has in English.
Stati Uniti d'America (United States of America, USA is used as well) e Canada:
Exactly the same name. States, provinces and territories as well. Some physical elements don't: Rocky Mountains=Montagne Rocciose,
St. Lawrence=San Lorenzo.
Messico e America Centrale (con i Caraibi)
Mexico City=Città del Messico
Guatemala City=Città del Guatemala
Puerto Rico=Porto Rico (I know it's a US territory, but it still is in the Carribbean)
São Paulo=San Paolo
Santiago de Chile= Santiago del Cile ("del Cile" is often dropped for shortness)
I will not divide the cities of this continent by area simply because the majority of name-changing cities are located in North Africa (Nord Africa o Africa Settentrionale):
Alexandria=Alessandria d'Egitto ("d'Egitto" is kept because there is another city in Piedmont which bears the same name, even if it's far far smaller and less relevant (Alessandrini non me ne vogliate))
Memphis=Menfi (only the Egyptian city is translated, non the American one)
Port Said=Porto Said
Sharm-el-Sheikh doesn't change despite its spelling.
The only city south of the Sahara which changes its name is Cape Town, which becomes Città del Capo.
Ok, this list ends here. Don't absolutely learn it by heart, you'd forget these hundred and more (didn't count tbh) after a week. Memorize the Italian ones, the biggest European cities and a bunch of names from your area. I typed it just to satisfy your curiosity. Few of you will ever use Città del Guatemala, Samarcanda or Orano in a conversation in Italian (the majority of my fellow Italians don't even know their existence). Regarding the names I suggested to learn, keep practising and reading and these names will slowly get fixed in your brain, trust me. This is how I did with English. Also, given your pre-existing knowledge of English, the little differences (a letter or two changing) will never ever bother you. Take it easy guys!
P.S.: for the ones getting puzzled by the quantity and weirdness of translated names of German cities, I feel you. Never understood why our ancestors had so much fun with so much German cities, historical and economical reasons probably. Anyways, I love the way they sound. Too strange, ain't they?
It was a Latin adaption of the name of Proto Germanic in this language, theodisk, coming from theod, the people. It was opposed to the high classes who knew Latin. The German deutsch (and tysk and other similar Germanic words) come from the Old High German diutisc. Meaning both diutisc and theodisk language of the people, it is one of those rare occasions in which we can say that Italian and Germanic languages share something.
No. Manila begins with a consonant, so you don't need the -d. In fact, this -d is added to make pronunciation easier. Theoretically, you should add the -d only when the following vowel is the same (ad ascoltare but not ad iniziare.
Practically, instead, native speakers add this -d whenever the following word starts with a vowel. Here are some examples of common use.
Vado ad Amsterdam, Vado ad Edimburgo, Vado ad Otranto: all vowels.
With consonants: Vado a Roma, Vado a Manila.
Vado a Berlino.
The euphonic d (d eufonica in Italian) appears with the linker e (and) as well. See:
Verrò con Mario ed Edoardo.
I'll come with Mario and Edoardo.
Same grammatical rules and same violations of them in the daily use.
You may also encounter od (or+euphonic d), but it's really rare and nobody uses it orally, so nevermind.
I think it depends where you go. People who work in the tourism industry (like hotels, restaurants) are likely to know English, but even in big cities not everyone will (I had to go to a luggage shop in central Rome where the saleswoman spoke no English). I've been to Venice a few times and loads of people in shops there speak some English.
But mostly I've found Italians to be very polite and friendly, and like to converse. They seem to like it if you know at least a few words of their language. So just be polite and respectful and you'll get on just fine, even if there is a language barrier!
We have quite an accent, people do not know it like in Northern Europe but you always get to communicate. Anyway, in touristic places such as Rome, Florence and Venice (the three cities everybody thinks Italy is only made of unluckily) and in other big cities (I suggest you to visit them and not to follow the stereotypical American dream from stupid rom coms set in Italy in a countryside house which seems to be completely abandoned in the charming hills of Tuscany where, weirdly, nobody lives but an incredibly handsome young Mediterranean man who should reoresent the average Italian farmer) you should have no difficulties at all. P.S.: don't mind the brackets, just I'm not a normal, mentally sane person
my thought is for clarity, seeing how there is a difference between the present simple we go and continuous we are going.
We use the present simple tense when we want to talk about fixed habits or routines – things that don’t change.
We use the present continuous to talk about actions which are happening at the present moment, but will soon finish.
a/ad = ad is used instead of a when the following word starts with a vowel, specifically an a-. You can try pronouncing some of these combination when you come across them to figure out whether you want to use one or the other. You'll note that your choice depends entirely on whether or not you stumble over certain letters.
a/a + article = the article isn't used in front of an unmodified city (kind of like the family member rule!) but you will find it in front of the names of some countries, rivers, mountains... it gets a bit complicated ;)
It makes sense as a conjugated verb to me (andiamo=we go), but growing up my grandparents would always say "andiamo!" to mean "let's go!" I put "let's go to Amsterdam," and it was marked correct. I'm just curious about how the word means both things? In English, "lets go" (suggestion or command) is very different from "we go" (statement).
It's all about the intonation and the stress. It happens with questions too actually, in English you change the whole sentence while in Italian we recycle the normal form and just modify our voice. You can't imagine the effort when I had to learn it and keep in mind that hateful "to do" verb. It is still tricky to me sometimes ugh