Transitive verb plus Direct Object
Eso lo hemos establecido = We have established that. In this case "lo" clarifies "lo" as "that". Fine, pretty clear. But what about the following sentence?
Esto no lo ha previsto el abogado = The lawyer has not foreseen this. In this case, does "lo" clarify "el abogado" or "esto"?
I have to say that i am think that you are wrong in the first sentence. "lo" is not as "that", "that" as "Eso".
Then, in the second sentence, "esto" as "this".
We can use "lo" for elide some part about the sentence, for example:
- Yo he hecho los deberes. - Yo los he hecho.
- I have done the homework. - I have done it.
In this case, los is plural because, in Spanish "los deberes"(homework) is plural, then you can add a "s".
- Nosotros hemos hecho un pastel. -> Nosotros lo hemos hecho.
- We have done a cake. -> We have done it.
This time, you can use "lo" because "pastel"(cake) is singular.
- Quien ha hecho ese cuadro? - Yo lo he hecho.
- Who have been done that painting. - I have done it. (with "lo" you elide "that painting")
- This = esto/este/esta.
- These = estos/estas.
- That = eso
- Those = esas /esos.
I hope help you.