Not really...ale is reasonably specific, whereas beer is extremely general. Lager is beer, but it's not ale. Guinness (and any other stout) is a beer, but not an ale. Ale is more of a catch-all for bitters and the like that are not mass-produced. So, John Smiths is a bitter, but it's not an ale.
A pub is where you can both eat and drink, where a bar is where you usually just drink. You would for example visit a bar if you want a good night out with friends, to drink and dance.
A pub is more like a restaurant and you'd usually visit one to talk with people in a "calmer" environment. So the pub would be more casual than a bar.
It's interesting. :) It is the exact opposite in Poland. When I want to eat or drink something fast, I go to the bar. When I want to eat, drink wine and talk I go to the restaurant. When I want to drink beer and talk I go to the pub, where I can at most eat something like chips, French fries or hot dog.
I don't know where you're from... but in the UK there's no obligation for a pub to serve food (although many do to keep their business going). But yes, I think the atmosphere is important. Pubs are (in theory) a more 'cosy' atmosphere although again lots of them have sports on TV to attract customers :(
Actually I think a good distinction is that a pub is likely to serve a selection of ales, whereas a bar is more likely to serve a selection of lagers...
You'll find that Swedish doesn't have /tʃ/ or /dʒ/ sounds at the beginning of words. In fact, it's a common Swedish accent error when speaking English to simplify those to /ʃ/ and /j/. That's why you could hear a Swede telling you to put on your "yacket" to protect you from the "shill". :p
Sorry, I was wrong. I thought it was one of those Romani loan words (like tjej), but the dictionary tells me it's something dialectal which has become standard language. There's at least one more word where k is hard before an i, kisse which is like 'kitty' for a cat. This word is also said to come from some dialect, so there must have been variance among dialects here historically and some words mirror that. A modern loan word like kiosk is pronounced differently by different people: some use the [ɕ] sound and some the [k] sound.