Not really...ale is reasonably specific, whereas beer is extremely general. Lager is beer, but it's not ale. Guinness (and any other stout) is a beer, but not an ale. Ale is more of a catch-all for bitters and the like that are not mass-produced. So, John Smiths is a bitter, but it's not an ale.
A pub is where you can both eat and drink, where a bar is where you usually just drink. You would for example visit a bar if you want a good night out with friends, to drink and dance.
A pub is more like a restaurant and you'd usually visit one to talk with people in a "calmer" environment. So the pub would be more casual than a bar.
It's interesting. :) It is the exact opposite in Poland. When I want to eat or drink something fast, I go to the bar. When I want to eat, drink wine and talk I go to the restaurant. When I want to drink beer and talk I go to the pub, where I can at most eat something like chips, French fries or hot dog.
I don't know where you're from... but in the UK there's no obligation for a pub to serve food (although many do to keep their business going). But yes, I think the atmosphere is important. Pubs are (in theory) a more 'cosy' atmosphere although again lots of them have sports on TV to attract customers :(
Actually I think a good distinction is that a pub is likely to serve a selection of ales, whereas a bar is more likely to serve a selection of lagers...
In the UK, a pub (short for public house) is not usually part of a hotel or restaurant.
Pubs vary greatly. All of them serve alcohol - that is their main trade. Some just serve drinks - nothing else (that was the norm for all pubs for many years), some serve meals, some sell snacks, some are more upmarket, luxurious and expensive, some are old sawdust on the floor places.
The "bar" in a pub is just the counter where you buy the drinks: Last drink at the bar please - usually shouted by the bar staff 15 minutes before closing time.
You'll find that Swedish doesn't have /tʃ/ or /dʒ/ sounds at the beginning of words. In fact, it's a common Swedish accent error when speaking English to simplify those to /ʃ/ and /j/. That's why you could hear a Swede telling you to put on your "yacket" to protect you from the "shill". :p
Sorry, I was wrong. I thought it was one of those Romani loan words (like tjej), but the dictionary tells me it's something dialectal which has become standard language. There's at least one more word where k is hard before an i, kisse which is like 'kitty' for a cat. This word is also said to come from some dialect, so there must have been variance among dialects here historically and some words mirror that. A modern loan word like kiosk is pronounced differently by different people: some use the [ɕ] sound and some the [k] sound.
Kille reminds me the german word for dude "Kerl", but still very different from Kille.
I read all the comments, its so sweet that Swedish had or have the word "kidhlinger", it sounds soo cute! Jag älskar det. Tack så mycket, now I can relate to the word. I understand it better.
Kid - Child
Linger ("ling" in german, is a dimanutive suffix for words.)
In Spanish its ito or ita, iña, iño, in portuguese its -inho and inha. Pronounced like the swedish word inga.