Translation:Today the number of poor women is higher than men.
Nope, but you could use "maior do que o (número) DE/DOS homens".
1 - With "superior" we don't use "do que", we use "a/à/ao".
2 - Notice that "Number" is what is being compared. That's why the preposition is needed, because even if "number" is omitted, it still demands one. (Número de mulheres, número de homens).
I tried “Today the number of poor women is greater than the number of poor men.”, and that was considered wrong. I removed the second “poor” and was marked correct with “Today the number of poor women is greater than the number of men.”. Those two sentences have very different meanings in English, and I suspect that the correct meaning is supposed to be the former. I’m not quite confident enough to report it as a mistake without confirmation though.