In Portugal it is Pimenta Preta (for black pepper) or Pimenta Branca (for the white) and Pimenta da Jamaica (for Allspice). Moída for Piri-Piri (hot chili pepper) or Caiena (Cayenne pepper) "ground" (into powder, not unlike coffee grounds) or Pó for powder. Páprica Doce or Pícante for Paprika (pepper)... well, it gets complicated. :D
Pimento for the fresh peppers while processed peppers like powdered Paprika, or red pepper paste become, "Pimentão" which gets us, pimentão doce, picante or, fumado and, massa do pimentão.
pimenta" mostly refers to the corns of spice peppers and allspice. But that is in the Motherland*.
In Brazil however... peppercorns are, "pimenta do reino" (pepper from the kingdom). And then generally all the ones coming from the annual plant are also pimenta but with the modifier of what kind of pepper. Pimenta malagueta, pimenta calabresa, pimenta biquinha, etc.
But, just to mix things up, the bell peppers in Brazil are, "pimentão"...
*Motherland does not include the Açores which have another twist... (but may be the source of the Brazilian differences).
This is a bit confusing from an Australian point of view as 'pepper' only relates to the black peppercorns that are ground and added to food. The small spicy fruits are called chillis and not peppers here. Does pimenta typically refer to what we call chilli and pimenta negra (preta?) refer to the black one? Or is it purely derived from context? Se eu falar que não gosto de pimenta na minha sopa, signifaria que não goste de 'chilli' ou de 'black pepper' dentro da minha sopa?
SOME LIKE IT HOT
THE STORY OF CHILI PEPPERS
BURT WOLF ON CAMERA: When Columbus set sail from Spain one of his objectives was to get King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella into the pepper business. So when he arrived in the Caribbean and the natives gave him a taste of a pungent fruit, he decided to call it pepper. And he had two good reasons. First, it did something to his mouth that felt like pepper, and second, and much more important, he was getting paid to find pepper, and so he found it.
BURT WOLF: The small round dry black pepper that we grind in a mill is native to India and was brought to ancient Greece and Rome by Arab traders. It was so valuable in Europe that both the Spanish and the Portuguese spent fortunes sending out expeditions to try and break the Arab monopoly.
BARBARA KETCHAM WHEATON ON CAMERA: The king and queen of Spain were anxious to get a new route to the spice islands of the East Indies, by sailing West. Because, due to political disruption in Asia, the traditional spice routes were breaking down, and it was getting increasingly complicated to get spices to the West.
BURT WOLF: Columbus made an entry in his diary that described the chili pepper as more valuable than the black pepper and pointed out that the natives constantly used it and thought it had health-giving properties. He estimated that each year, 50 ships filled with chili peppers could be sent back to Spain and they would prove to be exceedingly profitable.
Fascinating the part they play in history really:
PEPPERING THE WORLD
BURT WOLF ON CAMERA: A key moment in the history of hot pepper came with the signing of the papal Treaty in 1494.
BURT WOLF: At a point that was 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands; the Pope took his magic marker and drew a longitudinal line that divided the world in two. The Spanish had the right to explore and trade in the area to the west; Portugal got everything to the east, which included Africa and Asia.
BURT WOLF ON CAMERA: But they didn’t get around to drawing a second line in the Far East. So in 1529, the pope had to come all the way back and construct the Treaty of Zaragoza, which gave Spain the Philippines and Portugal the Spice Islands. As a result the Portuguese and the Spanish spread hot peppers around the world.
JESSICA HARRIS ON CAMERA: The transatlantic journey took months, certainly, weeks, and yet and still, by the 16th Century, there are chilis in India. And people are not only using them but adapting, adjusting and loving them. And much of that gets attributed to the Portuguese. I sort of have this mental picture of those black-robed Jesuits with deep pockets and sort of seeds and things coming out of these pockets. And part of it was the whole virtual mandate after Prince Henry the Navigator. The Portuguese were the world explorers. I mean, they're the ones who circumnavigated the globe. The whole idea of the Treaty of Tordesillas and East and West in that division and who owned the East, and of course that line is the line that makes Brazil speak Portuguese.
Obviously, in both Spanish and Portuguese the word for pepper is not pepper (rather pimenta/o/ão and "pimiento" in SP) but at least in the US, both peppercorns and chili peppers are simply called, pepper for the most part (well, in fact on the west coast they use the specific name of the pepper really such as, jalapeño, serrano, poblano, cayenne, Thai, cherry, habanero... without saying pepper or chili). And so it kind of is in Portugal as well, as detailed in my previous comment here. Brazil however, I do not know so well, but for sure the word for bell pepper has a different ending.
I believe in Australia bell peppers are called capsicum (capsaicin in Latin) which is detailed further along the pepper story at the above link and is what makes a pepper pungent/piquant (spicy/hot) rather than the mild ones like the bell peppers which normally lack it. Black pepper (peppercorns, genus piper)) also lacks capsaicin but has other properties, chiefly piperine which makes it very healthful (and spicy).
Interestingly enough, even though peppercorns come in many different colors, black, white, green, and red... the pink "peppercorns" in many pepper blends are not related and come from the Brazilian Pepper Tree which is related to the cashew (and has been declared a noxious weed in Australia).