"Hon antog att jag inte talade svenska."
Translation:She assumed that I did not speak Swedish.
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In English the word "didn't" is in the past tense. Which is the reason why the word "speak" is not.
This is because in indo-european languages the first verb of a clause will contain the tense and the second verb of a clause will (almost) always be in infinitive form.
This sentence is composed of two clauses: a main clause (hon antog att) and a subclause (jag inte talade svenska), this subclause is in negative simple past form.
English uses 'to do' to create simple past forms, or in the negative case 'did not': DID not SPEAK, these are two verbs in english and the first one contains the tense.
Swedish does not use the verb 'to do' to create negative simple past forms like english does, it therefore uses only one verb. This verb of the subclause (talade) is in first place and is therefore in simple past form.
In English and French we usually switch the tense from present to past for indirect speech, and I wonder if Swedish does the same thing. Some languages like Russian do not do that. For example: She said, "I like you." --> She said that she liked me. In Swedish, do we need to switch from present to past tense for indirect speech? And if so, does that apply to verbs like "assumed that..."?