About present tense
Example sentence 1:
"Il boit du lait"
- I get this means "He drinks [some] milk" but does this also mean "He IS DRINKING [some] milk"?
- How would you know whether the present tense is (drinks) or (is drinking)?
This is an occasion where English has more variants than French. You have to use your judgement when writing in context, but when you just have a phrase they are equally right.
The equivalent of "he IS DRINKING milk" is "il EST EN TRAIN DE boire du lait". In other words, when the English language has a verbal form to express that an action is in progress, the French use an expression to mean the same thing.