The tallrik case is because both Swedish and Russian borrowed the word from German. Swedish from the Middle Low German word tallorken, and Russian from Polish talerz which comes from Middle High German talier (> German Teller). This is a loan from Romance languages, compare French talloir ’cutting board’, Italian tagliere ’cutting board’, both derivatives of the Latin verb talio ’I cut’. So this is a word that has spread through various European languages.
The word dela however is similar because Swedish and Russian are related languages. It exists in Germanic languages like Swedish del ’part’, German Teil, English deal. Then it exists in Slavic languages like Old Church Slavonic děliti ’divide’ and Russian delitʹ ’divide’. It is further related to Lithuanian dailiti ’divide’ for example. All these words come from the same Proto-Indo-European root.