let's talk about die and der once again ?
why der kase and die orange? why die flasche and der teller? why das glas and die tasse ?
i guess all of them r the same kind . it make me crazy to remember so many :die,der,das ? who can help me ?
and also about the ein,eine,einen ?
I'm sorry, but you will have to remember the articles, as there in no rule that would determine that. When you learn a new substantive you shouldn't only learn the word, but the article as well.
Whether it's ein, eine oder einen depends on the artice of the word, too. And it depends on wheter the noun is the object or subject of the sentence.
For example, if it's the object: "Ich habe einen Teller" (der Teller), "Ich habe eine Tasse" (die Tasse), "Ich habe ein Glas" (das Glas).
And if it is the subject: "Da liegt ein Teller" (der Teller), "Da liegt eine Tasse" (die Tasse), "Da liegt ein Glas" (das Glas).
You'll just have to get a feeling for using the right word. Of course that will only work if you know the right article. The thing is, if you'd ask me "Whats the right word for a male word, when it's the object of the sentence?" I couldn't tell you, I'd have to think for an example, myself..
Sounds interesting. But I think you should only remember a few of the rules. Since there are so many it would be more effort to learn all of them, than learning the nouns including the articles..
And for many of those rules it's pretty likely, that there are some exceptions. For example when "-schaft" is part of a composed word, like "Bohrerschaft" (der), or when the "-chen" isn't part of a minimization (Hand -> das Händchen) like in "Rechen" (der).
sb tell me :
about the der das die... sometimes there is no reason for it. you just have to memorize it ein, eine, einen are just like saying "a". ein is for masculine and neuter words (der and das), eine is for feminine ones (die). einen is the accusative masculine (den)
is it right ? how do u think?
One of the reasons I gave the examples above is that they don't have exceptions. Bohrerschaft is a compound noun made up of two nouns - Bohrer and Schaft, therefore it takes the gender of the final noun. Schaft is not a noun ending in -schaft; Schaft is the whole noun. It's actually an English word that has been 'Germanised'.
Der Rechen confuses me. The only reason I can think of why it might be der is that it, too, seems to be a word borrowed from English, but I woudln't say that necessarily is the true reason. German is pretty unpredictable about borrowed words.
I looked up the derivation of Rechen on wiktionary. Unfortunately it just about the verb, but I guess the etymology is pretty much the same. It says there:
Herkunft: gemeingermanisch; von althochdeutsch rehhan zu frühneuhochdeutsch rechen „kratzen“, „raffen“. Vgl. dazu niederdeutsch gleichbedeutend raken
As you mentioned.. It's hard to tell wheter a word is "originally" german, or not. But I think those two rules will work in at least 98% of all cases, so it could come in handy to remember them..
"Schaft" is not an English word that has been Germanised. "Schaft" and "shaft" do share the same etymological root, though: Protogermanic *skaftaz. http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Proto-Germanic/skaftaz Usually, you can tell if a word has been imported from English. An approximation of the original English pronunciation is a telltale sign. If the pronunciation follows the phonological rules of German, the word is most likely German through and through or of Latin/Greek origin. There are exceptions, of course. Off the top of my head, "Mulch" and "Keks" (cake) come to mind.