The stem is "tawar". In this context, it is a verb which means "offer". It also has another sense as a verb which means "to bid/bargain" and an adjective which means "tasteless" (not related to this context). If you hover the mouse on the word "offer" there will be three translation: menawarkan, tawarkan, and ditawarkan.
First, the easy one: the prefix "di" is used for passive voice. For example, "we were offered tomato soup" becomes "kami ditawarkan sup tomat".
The circumfix "me-verb-kan" in this context forms the transtive verb. So, "we offered tomato soup" means "kami menawarkan sup tomat". We can also use "tawarkan" which has similar meaning.
P.S. In my explanation I use "in this context" several times because if we use it differently, then it can mean "to bid" (e.g. "saya menawar baju itu" which means "I make a bid for that dress").
In general, there's almost no difference if you use the verb stem or with prefix me-. For example:
- "Saya makan nasi" or "Saya memakan nasi" both mean "I eat rice"
- "Saya minum air" or "Saya meminum air" both mean "I drink water"
Now, we also have rules on how we merge the prefix to the verb. This rule depends on the first letter of the verb, which helps us to pronounce the new word smoothly. Here are some examples:
me+tawar = menawar me+pukul = memukul (to hit) me+cuci = mencuci (to wash) me+bantu = membantu (to help) me+sanjung = menyanjung (to laud)
P.S. Additional information: for this "tawar" verb, pragmatically we always use "menawar" for "make a bid/bargain" and "menawarkan" for "offer".
So, "saya menawar sup tomat" means "I make a bid for the tomato soup" (maybe I want it to be cheaper), whereas "saya menawarkan sup tomat" always means "I offer tomato soup".
I hope it helps. Cheers
Ah, I missed the ber-verb question that you asked. If the prefix added to a verb, it can make an intransitive verb, transitive verb, or reflexive verb.
Ber+ajar (to teach): - intransitive: Saya belajar (I study), but we can also say: - transitive: Saya belajar bahasa Inggris (I study english) - transitive: Saya mengajar bahasa Inggris (I teach english)
ber+bicara (to talk): - intransitive: Saya berbicara kepadanya (I talk to him/her)
ber+main (to play): - intransitive and reflexive: Saya bermain (I play) - transitive: Saya bermain sepak bola (I play football) - transitive: Saya main sepak bola (I play football)
There is unwritten rule in our language which, because unwritten, can be difficult to understand/explain. Take a look at "bermain". It is common to say "saya main" or "saya bermain", but we never say "saya memain sepak bola". Strange, isn't it?
About this suffix "ai", can you give me an example? Because I can't remember we have that suffix (or maybe I have forgotten to say things in my own language).