Greek Lesson 9
Hello everyone! This is the 9th lesson of my series of Greek lessons. Here you'll learn some verbs' vocabulary, the singular accusative of the nouns in Greek, the theory of the final ν, the accusative of articles and the theories of αντικείμενο and κατηγορούμενο. Remember that I don't write how words are pronounced, because you' ve already learnt it in the first lesson. To understand the grammar of the lesson you must know the Greek articles.
Some verbs in Greek
In Greek Lesson 6 you've learned how to conjugate verbs ending in -ω in present tense. Here are some of these verbs:
- έχω = to have
- ζωγραφίζω = to draw
- μένω = to stay, to live (in a house, in a city, etc)
- πηγαίνω = to go
- βρίσκω = to find
- διαβάζω = to read
- γράφω = to write
- πίνω = to drink
- καταλαβαίνω = to understand
- μαθαίνω = to learn
- ξέρω = to know
- πέφτω = to fall
- λατρεύω = to adore
- φέρνω = to bring
- ψάχνω = to search
- κόβω = to cut
- πιστεύω = to believe
- κερδίζω = to win
- χάνω = to lose
- προτείνω = to recommend
- βελτιώνω = to improve
- ζω = to live
- βλέπω = to see
- παίζω = to play
Singular Accusative of nouns in Greek
As you already know, there are three genders in Greek. The accusative of a noun depends on its gender and its ending. To make learning easier, I'll try to group the nouns in groups depending on their gender and ending, and then I'll write the ending that they take to form the singular form of the accusative case. So, let's start! :D
- Male nouns ending in -ης become -η in accusative --> ο ποιητ
ής= the (male) poet becomes τον ποιητ
--> ο επιβάτ
ης = the (male) passenger becomes τον επιβάτ
ής = the (male) student becomes το μαθητ
- Male nouns ending in -ος become -ο in accusative --> ο βάτραχ
ος= the frog becomes το βάτραχ
--> ο χρόν
ος = the time, the year becomes το χρόν
--> ο δρόμ
ος = the road, the street becomes το δρόμ
- Feminin nouns ending in -α remain as -α in accusative --> η γάτ
α= the (female) cat becomes τη γάτ
--> η εικόν
α = the picture becomes την εικόν
--> η καρδι
ά = the heart becomes την καρδι
- Neuter nouns ending in -ο remain as -ο in accusative --> το αεροπλάνο = the plane remains το αεροπλάνο
--> το ζώο = the animal remains το ζώο
--> το χρυσόψαρο = the goldfish remains το χρυσόψαρο
- Neuter nouns ending in -ι remain as -ι in accusative--> το σπίτι = the house, the home becomes το σπίτι
--> το νησί = the island remaines το νησί
--> το καλοκαίρι = the summer remains το καλοκαίρι
Singular Accusative of articles in Greek
You've just learned how to form the accusative of nouns in Greek, but how do we form articles in accusative?
- Definitive articles in nominative are ο, η, το and become το(ν), τη(ν), το in accusative.
- Indefinitive articles in nominative are ένας, μία, ένα and become ένα(ν), μία, ένα in accusative.
The final "ν"
So, you've seen το(ν), τη(ν) and ένα(ν). But what's that (ν)? In Greek, there is the theory of final "ν". When the next word starts with a vowel or with one of the following consonants (κ,π,τ,ξ,ψ) or a consonant combination (μπ,ντ,γκ,τσ), these words take the final ν. But when the next word starts with another consonant, this ν isn't used. For example: we say τον αρχιτέκτονα but το γιατρό. However, don't be afraid to make erros, as most Greek people don't know this rule, and even my grammar teachers at school make errors in this rule!!!!!
Αντικείμενο and κατηγορούμενο
You've already learned the accusative of nouns and articles, but when do we use the accusative? German learners may think that the accusative case in Greek (or αιτιατική, in Greek) is used in the object of the sentence and after some prepositions. And it's right! :D
For example, if you want to say "I see the man", "the man" is the object of the sentence and it'll be in the accusative case in Greek. (you won't say "Εγώ βλέπω ο άντρας"- which is completely false, but "Εγώ βλέπω τον άντρα)
But be careful!!!! Some verbs in Greek don't have an object (αντικείμενο) but a κατηγορούμενο, which is in nominative case. The most important of these verbs is είμαι (=to be). So if you want to say "I am a man", "a man" will be in nominative case, not in accusative! So you'll say "Εγώ είμαι ένας άντρας" and not "Εγώ είμαι έναν άντρα"!!!
Tell them they will be hearing from be if the do not add you! You rock!
Nice job! Greece is so beautiful. This is helping me learn Greek so much!