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Greek Lesson 9

Hello everyone! This is the 9th lesson of my series of Greek lessons. Here you'll learn some verbs' vocabulary, the singular accusative of the nouns in Greek, the theory of the final ν, the accusative of articles and the theories of αντικείμενο and κατηγορούμενο. Remember that I don't write how words are pronounced, because you' ve already learnt it in the first lesson. To understand the grammar of the lesson you must know the Greek articles.

Some verbs in Greek

In Greek Lesson 6 you've learned how to conjugate verbs ending in -ω in present tense. Here are some of these verbs:

  • έχω = to have
  • ζωγραφίζω = to draw
  • μένω = to stay, to live (in a house, in a city, etc)
  • πηγαίνω = to go
  • βρίσκω = to find
  • διαβάζω = to read
  • γράφω = to write
  • πίνω = to drink
  • καταλαβαίνω = to understand
  • μαθαίνω = to learn
  • ξέρω = to know
  • πέφτω = to fall
  • λατρεύω = to adore
  • φέρνω = to bring
  • ψάχνω = to search
  • κόβω = to cut
  • πιστεύω = to believe
  • κερδίζω = to win
  • χάνω = to lose
  • προτείνω = to recommend
  • βελτιώνω = to improve
  • ζω = to live
  • βλέπω = to see
  • παίζω = to play

Singular Accusative of nouns in Greek

As you already know, there are three genders in Greek. The accusative of a noun depends on its gender and its ending. To make learning easier, I'll try to group the nouns in groups depending on their gender and ending, and then I'll write the ending that they take to form the singular form of the accusative case. So, let's start! :D

  • Male nouns ending in -ης become -η in accusative --> ο ποιητής = the (male) poet becomes τον ποιητή in accusative

--> ο επιβάτης = the (male) passenger becomes τον επιβάτη

-->ο μαθητής = the (male) student becomes το μαθητή

  • Male nouns ending in -ος become -ο in accusative --> ο βάτραχος = the frog becomes το βάτραχο

--> ο χρόνος = the time, the year becomes το χρόνο

--> ο δρόμος = the road, the street becomes το δρόμο

  • Feminin nouns ending in -α remain as -α in accusative --> η γάτα= the (female) cat becomes τη γάτα

--> η εικόνα = the picture becomes την εικόνα

--> η καρδιά = the heart becomes την καρδιά

  • Neuter nouns ending in -ο remain as -ο in accusative --> το αεροπλάνο = the plane remains το αεροπλάνο

--> το ζώο = the animal remains το ζώο

--> το χρυσόψαρο = the goldfish remains το χρυσόψαρο

  • Neuter nouns ending in -ι remain as -ι in accusative--> το σπίτι = the house, the home becomes το σπίτι

--> το νησί = the island remaines το νησί

--> το καλοκαίρι = the summer remains το καλοκαίρι

Singular Accusative of articles in Greek

You've just learned how to form the accusative of nouns in Greek, but how do we form articles in accusative?

  • Definitive articles in nominative are ο, η, το and become το(ν), τη(ν), το in accusative.
  • Indefinitive articles in nominative are ένας, μία, ένα and become ένα(ν), μία, ένα in accusative.

The final "ν"

So, you've seen το(ν), τη(ν) and ένα(ν). But what's that (ν)? In Greek, there is the theory of final "ν". When the next word starts with a vowel or with one of the following consonants (κ,π,τ,ξ,ψ) or a consonant combination (μπ,ντ,γκ,τσ), these words take the final ν. But when the next word starts with another consonant, this ν isn't used. For example: we say τον αρχιτέκτονα but το γιατρό. However, don't be afraid to make erros, as most Greek people don't know this rule, and even my grammar teachers at school make errors in this rule!!!!!

Αντικείμενο and κατηγορούμενο

You've already learned the accusative of nouns and articles, but when do we use the accusative? German learners may think that the accusative case in Greek (or αιτιατική, in Greek) is used in the object of the sentence and after some prepositions. And it's right! :D

For example, if you want to say "I see the man", "the man" is the object of the sentence and it'll be in the accusative case in Greek. (you won't say "Εγώ βλέπω ο άντρας"- which is completely false, but "Εγώ βλέπω τον άντρα)

But be careful!!!! Some verbs in Greek don't have an object (αντικείμενο) but a κατηγορούμενο, which is in nominative case. The most important of these verbs is είμαι (=to be). So if you want to say "I am a man", "a man" will be in nominative case, not in accusative! So you'll say "Εγώ είμαι ένας άντρας" and not "Εγώ είμαι έναν άντρα"!!!

Greek discussions directory

Παναγιώτης :)

Duo

March 1, 2015

5 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/-Feodor-

Thank you! Hope they add you to the Greek for English speakers team!


[deactivated user]

    Tell them they will be hearing from be if the do not add you! You rock!


    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AmharicYohan

    This is so great to see all these languages coming along! :)


    [deactivated user]

      Nice job! Greece is so beautiful. This is helping me learn Greek so much!


      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jaye16

      Thank you again, I should write that every day in sparkling lights. I keep getting the "το/τον' confused and your explanation set it all straight. Only I don't get were the ς comes from here: "Εγώ είμαι ένας άντρας" and not "Εγώ είμαι έναν άντρα"!!!

      Again many thanks.

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