Is there any difference between "pulver" and "damm"?
Yes, pulver is powder, and damm is dust.
If I said, "Det finns damm på bordet," would that imply that dust is a permanent natural presence on the table, and sound silly/wrong?
This is one of those cases where the overlap is so large that är, finns, and ligger all work. I would probably not pay much attention to any difference between them.
Yay! This answer makes me happy! :D
And thanks again for all you help. You are always there for us!!!