Dutch Word Order?
Now that I have a decent vocabulary base, I am getting into grammar and sentence structure ...
There aren't nearly as many Dutch resources online as there are some other languages.
I basically just need some confirmation here.
The word order really only changes in the event that there is a conjunction, question, command, or referring to time ?
Can someone post a simple syntax? IE: [ Question - [Verb] [Subject] [Object] ]
Are these correct? (also unsure if verbs should be in root form or not?)
Hoewel wil ik naar de markt ga, blijf ik thuis .
Wanneer heb jij veel tijd, kunnen praten wij?
Lees een boek totdat ben jij moe !
Thanks a lot ! :D
Any tips / suggestions (or resources for word order)
Thanks, it definitely helps ...
Would the following be correct . . . .
" Hij zwemt, omdat we hem steunen " -- Notice I took into consideration what you said... I am considering that since we have obviously made clear who/what the subject is? Or am I going about this the wrong way ?
Aangezien de man slaperig is, loopt hij naar de markt. Hij rent niet !
De man is slaperig, omdat hij naar de markt rent.
What about the sub-clause having a dependant clause? "ps: aware that het is gestolen is probably incorrect, but, I am focusing on word order. Not tenses"
-- Ik ben droevig, omdat ik wil naar de markt gaan maar het is gesloten .
Your first three sentence are fine. A remark about Hij zwemt, omdat we hem steunen: both we and wij can be used, since the we will not include the hij (unlike the kunnen wij praten sentence).
Your last sentence should be: Ik ben droevig, omdat ik naar de markt wil gaan maar ze gesloten is. In the first bold part you used an incorrect word order, in the second bold part it was unclear because you included is twice.
Next to that markt is feminine, so it should be referred to as ze. However rest assured, many native speakers will make mistakes with this, using hij (because they don't know if markt is masculine or feminine, I had to look it up as well), or maybe even het (clearly incorrect because markt is not a het woord/neuter word). If you write Maar het is gesloten as a separate sentence, the word order changes.
If a dutch sentence has two (or more) verbs, the first (and inflected) verb [finite verb] will be placed right after the subject. This gives the illusion that Dutch sentences are SVO in simple sentences such as 'Jan hielp zijn moeder.', "John helped his mother." lit. John helped his mother. however, Dutch sentences are really SOV and thus, "John wants to go help his mother" would be 'Jan wilde zijn moeder gaan helpen." lit John wants his mother to go (to) help.. As seen in that sentence, the verb phrase comes at the end of the sentence/clause and only the first verb goes between the subject and the object because of the V2 rule that the finite verb should be placed after the subject and this is what makes simple sentences seem like they're SVO when they're really SOV. Many other Indo-European languages have the V2 rule such as Afrikaans, German, Icelandic and Yiddish. You're right with the question structure as well, the subject and finite verb undergo inversion. If they do not undergo inversion, it's not incorrect but it implies disbelief. If you want more information on it, I've found an article on Wikipedia about it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_grammar#Word_order
Hope this helped and merry Dutching!