Estação (do ano)
A season of the year
Used mainly for festivals/events, specific activities and TV series. Has clear start and end limits.
A contextual period of time, and also a period where certain nature events usually happen. This is the choice when you want to refer to a reasonably long (usually without clear limits) time period where something used to happen / usually happens. It's not a time "measure", it never comes without a context.
- É época de chuvas = It's raining season
Context / Past / Historical
- A época da ditadura = The dictatorship period/times
- Época de vacas magras = Lean times (skinny cows epoch)
- Naquela época eu era feliz = I was happy at that (past) time (period).
Época x Temporada
- A época dos morangos = The usual time in the year where strawberries get ripe.
- A temporada dos morangos = Refers to the same period, but often implies parties and festivals where people eat and drink all kinds of strawberry recipes.
There are three kinds of "ão" plurals:
Unfortunately, there is no logical rule for which to chose. Some might have two correct plurals, some only one.
- Campeão - Campeões (champions)
- Mão - Mãos (hands)
- Charlatão - Charlatães (charlatans)
"Ões" seems to be the most common, and "ães" the least.