Basic Filipino (Tagalog): Nouns and Personal Pronouns with Exercises
Lesson 1 Link: Introduction: Nouns and Personal Pronouns
Lesson 2 Link: Inclusive and Exclusive we
Lesson 3 Link: Adjectives 1 with Exercises
A few things:
Filipino or Tagalog?
Filipino is the national language of the Philippines. Understood by most Filipinos, it serves as the lingua franca of the Philippines. Hawaii, California, and Alaska are states in the US where there is a significant number of Tagalog speakers (alongside another Filipino language, Ilokano).
Filipino is estimated to have over 60-70 million speakers. 'Filipino' is merely the standard register of the Tagalog language. It usually refers to the formalised Manila dialect of Tagalog. Filipino and Tagalog are often used interchangeably. For the rest of this post, I will use the word 'Tagalog'.
Language or Dialect?
A lot of people still incorrectly refer to Tagalog as a dialect of the Philippines. This has been attributed to the inaccurate vocabulary used in literature when the Philippines was under US rule. This inaccurate vocabulary is still taught in many schools.
Ilonggo, Cebuano and Ilokano are examples of other Philippine languages. Like Tagalog, they are incorrectly referred to as dialects but they are languages in their own right.
Dialects of the Philippine languages do exist. For instance, the Manila Tagalog dialect, the Bataan Tagalog dialect and the Batangas Tagalog dialect.
Read my comments here
Some Tagalog dictionaries and learning resources use accents (diacritical marks). Generally, native speakers do not use these. For the rest of this post, I will not spell words like "ikáw".
- They do not have grammatical gender
- Many are derived from Spanish
- There are essentially three cases: Direct (ang), Indirect (ng) - functions as the genitive, and Oblique (sa)
- 'ang' translates to 'the' (definite article)
- Adding 'mga' in front of a noun makes it plural
Apologies for the long intro but I have to get those issues out of the way. I also apologise in advanced for the weird phrases and sentences but that's seems to be a DuoLingo theme. I will only focus on direct and indirect pronouns. Here is the table of pronouns:
I think that learning from example and figuring out things on your own is a good approach. So, I am providing a few here:
Note: VERY IMPORTANT
There are other ways of saying "I am a duck" and "My duck":
Ako ay/Ako'y isang pato - I am a duck
Isang pato ako - I am a duck
(Ang) aking pato - My duck
Note that 'isang' assumes the role of the indefinite article here. In fact, there are other ways of translating the sentences below.
He is their goat - Siya ay kanilang kambing
You're a doctor - Ikaw ay isang doktor
My island - (Ang) aking isla
I won't discuss these as they are beyond the scope of this post.
Arranged both in alphabetical order for convenience
ho/po - Tagalog enclitic particle used for talking politely to older people, superiors, adult strangers and adult customers.
So if you want to politely tell someone that you're a powerful sorcerer in Tagalog, you would say: 'Makapangyarihang mangkukulam po ako' or 'Ako po ay isang makapangyarihang mangkukulam'
Hope there are no mistakes. I provided lots of nouns so people can use them to make more exercises for themselves. Be creative :)
Maraming salamat po sa inyong lahat.
It is the preferred one, and the most commonly used for conversational.
Ako ay naghugas ng tasa
Grammatically correct, but no one really speaks this way except on very formal speeches.
Ako ay nagsulat ng libro
Ako ay nagluto ng karne
You can do the SVO, but you're gonna end up sounding like a Tagalog speaking equivalent of Shakespeare.
Walang anuman :)
Ito daw kasi ang isa sa pinakamahirap na aspeto (maliban sa mga pandiwa) kaya ginawa ko ito. Hindi ko pa muna itutuloy ang seryeng ito kasi gusto ko munang tapusin ang mga ginagawa kong kurso dito. Medyo natagalan din ako sa paggawa ng mga litrato.
Pinadala ko na rin yung aking aplikasyon sa kursong 'Filipino for English speakers'. Kung magkaroon man nitong kurso, gusto ko tulungan ang mga moderator at ibubuhos ko lahat ng oras ko dito sa paggawa ng kurso.
Kahit na karamahin ng mga nakakapagtagalog ay 'taglish-speakers' lalo na ang mga OFW, at mga city-dwellers sa Pinas, sa tingin ko kulang pa rin ang 'Standard Filipino' resources sa Internet. Hindi perpekto ang written Tagalog ko kaya matutulungan din ako nitong kurso. :D
Oo, pandiwa ang pinaka mahirap na aspekto ng Tagalog (at, sa tingin ko, sa lahat ng wikang sa Pilipinas) sapagkat ito'y gumagamit ng marami affix.
Nagpadala rin ako ang aking aplikasyon para sa kursong 'Filipino for English speakers' subalit wala pa akong natatanggap na sagot muna sa admin ng DL.
Bueno, good luck na lang sa aplikasyon mo :-)