Serbian lessons, part 3
Let’s continue with our lessons. I hope you all like my two previous posts, so we can learn more about Serbian language and Serbia. Again, I received many positive compliments, which really makes me happy! Thank you everybody!
You can find my first lesson here https://www.duolingo.com/comment/7318148
And my second here https://www.duolingo.com/comment/7416320
We can start with learning some words and phrases…
Long time no see – Дуго се нисмо видели! Dugo se nismo videli!
I miss you – Недостајеш ми! Nedostaješ mi!
What’s new? – Шта има ново? Šta ima novo?
Nothing new! – Нема ништа ново! Nema ništa novo!
Thank you (very much) – Хвала ти (пуно)! Hvala ti (puno)!
You’re welcome (for ‘thank you’) – Нема на чему! Nema na čemu!
Have a nice day! – Пријатан дан! Prijatan dan!
See you later – Видимо се касније! Vidimo se kasnije!
See you soon – Видимо се ускоро! Vidimo se uskoro!
See you tomorrow – Видимо се сутра! Vidimo se sutra!
Today – данас / danas
Tomorrow – сутра / sutra
Yesterday – јуче / juče
Have a nice trip – Срећан пут! Srećan put!
Good luck – Срећно! Srećno!
Happy birthday – Срећан рођендан! Srećan rođendan!
Happy New Year – Срећна Нова година! Srećna Nova godina!
Merry Christmas – Срећан Божић! Srećan Božić!; but we mainly say Христос се роди! Hristos se rodi! – which means ''Christ is born''
Congratulations – Честитам! Čestitam!
Have a nice meal – Пријатно! Prijatno!
Bless you (when sneezing) – Наздравље! Nazdravlje!
Cheers! – Живели! Živeli!
I love you! – Волим те! Volim te!
100 dinar banknote featuring the scientist Nikola Tesla
Have you heard about Nikola Tesla? One of the greatest scientists of all time? He was Serbian American inventor, best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current electricity supply system.
Now, I think we can start with a bit of grammar.
Gender of nouns
There are three grammatical genders in Serbian language: masculine, feminine and neuter. Each noun has its own grammatical gender, while adjectives correspond to the gender of the noun.
Masculine, singular – мушкарац, дечак / muškarac, dečak (a man, a boy)
Feminine, singular – жена, девојчица / žena, devojčica (a woman, a girl)
Neuter, singular – дете / dete (a child)
If a noun ends in a consonant, most probably is the masculine noun. Some of masculine nouns end in a vowel, but those are mostly personal names as Marko, Nikola etc. If it ends in a vowel –o or –e in singular, mostly it is a neuter noun. If the noun ends on a vowel –a, it is a feminine noun. There are also feminine nouns which end in a consonant. How then to distinguish those masculine nouns from feminine nouns? Those nouns typically denote abstract objects, for example – љубав/ljubav (love), смрт/smrt (death), болест/bolest (illness), младост/mladost (youth) etc.
NUMBER OF NOUNS
In plural, masculine gender nouns, end on –и/-i, so we get:
Мушкарац – мушкарци / muškarac – muškarci
Дечак – дечаци / dečak – dečaci
Feminine gender nouns in plural (which in singular end in –a), end in –e:
Жена – жене / žena – žene
Девојчица – девојчице / devojčica – devojčice
Neuter gender nouns in plural get ending –a:
Дете – деца / dete – deca
Село – села / selo – sela (a village)
Писмо – писма / pismo – pisma (a letter)
Also, it is very important to know demonstrative pronouns that go with nouns of each gender:
This – овај, ова, ово / ovaj, ova, ovo
These – ови, ове, ова / ovi, ove, ova
That – тај, та, то / taj, ta, to
Those – ти, те, та / ti, te ta
Овај мушкарац, ова жена, ово дете / ovaj muškarac, ova žena, ovo dete
Ови мушкарци, ове жене, ова деца / ovi muškarci, ove žene, ova deca
Тај мушкарац, та жена, то дете / taj muškarac, ta žena, to dete
Ти мушкарци, те жене, та деца / ti muškarci, te žene, ta deca
Those are most common examples, but, as in every language, there are many exceptions, but I don't want to confuse you in beginning, we can learn it later. And I am not sure how good I can explain those rules, so I think with some practice we can learn it better. So, I will give you some nouns and if you want, you can try to guess which gender it is and also you can try to make a plural of those nouns. Have fun! :)
- Determine the gender of nouns
Пријатељ / prijatelj (a friend)
Рука / ruka (a hand)
Дрво / drvo (a tree)
Крава / krava (a cow)
Радост / radost (joy)
Небо / nebo (sky)
put a demonstative pronoun of your choise with examples from first exercise. NOTE – remember that demonstrative pronouns agree with a noun in gender in number
in the end, try to make a plural of those nouns also.
You can write your answers in comments below.
I think this is enough for this time. Sorry for waiting so long for a new lesson, I wasn't at home for a few days. Next one will be here sooner, I promice :)
Видимо се ускоро!
Vidimo se uskoro!
Yes, I've heard about Nikola Tesla, I'm related to him. ;) Haha, no, but actually he was the uncle of my grandmother's cousin. As my sister (jokingly) says: if you draw a family tree his name will be there somewhere, that's what counts hahah. Here are my answers:
taj prijatelj - ti prijatelji
taj stan - ti stani
ova ruka - ove ruke
ovo drvo - ova drva
ta krava - te krave
ovaj radost - ovi radosti
to nebo - ta neba
I hope I did okay! Haha. Thank you for your Serbian lessons, they're very appreciated! :)
Your sister is right. If the name is in a family tree, it counts, no matter where it stands haha :) I made a mistake with this "stan" word, because plural would be "stanovi", which makes a bit different then those that I already explained. Sorry :) We will learn that in the next lesson. "Radost" is a feminine gender noun, as it is an abstract noun. So the answer is "ova radost" - "ove radosti". Everything else is perfect. You are a great student! :)